Increased use of domestic and agricultural pesticides has become a serious threat to the environment. Prolonged exposure to pesticides is capable of affecting the genetic integrity of humans and other animals. The aim of this study is to access the effect of dichlorvos (DDVP), a widely used pesticide in Nigeria, on the DNA of poultry birds (Gallus domestica). This study explored different special representation of treated groups using a three-patch matrix model incorporating dichlorvos contamination (0.01, 0.02 and 0.4%). Exposure was carried out for ten weeks after which the birds were sacrificed and the liver was extracted. Thermal denaturation of the DNA from the exposed birds resulted in a significant reduction (p< 0.01) in the DNA melting temperature from 87.2oC to 81.7oC while the GC/AT ratio was also significantly reduced (p<0.01) from 0.77 in the control to 0.42 in exposed birds respectively. Electrophoresis of isolated DNA in 0.8% agarose gels gave variations in band intensity between the control DNA sample and DNA from exposed birds. These variations in band intensity were more pronounced in the RAPD-PCR products amplified with OPE-01 primer, where there is complete disappearance of DNA bands in the birds exposed to 0.04% pesticide. Thus deletion of DNA segments of birds exposed to dichlorvos can be modelled as a molecular biomarker of genotoxicity. This may also suggest that insecticides are capable of impacting genotoxic effects on non-target populations with consistent, long-term use.
Pesticides, genotoxicity, RAPD-PCR, melting temperature, DNA strand breaks.
- Atienzar, F.A. and Jha, A.N., 2006. The random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay and related techniques applied to genotoxicity and carcinogenesis studies: a critical review. Mutation Research,: 613(2-3): 76-102.
- Atienzar, F.A., Venier, P. and Jha, A.N., 2002. Depledge MN. Evaluation of the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay for the detection of DNA damage and mutations. Mutation Research, 52(1-2): 151-163.
- Becerril, C., Ferrero, S.F.and Castano, A., 1999. Detection of mitomycin C-induced genetic damage in fish cells by use of RAPD. Mutagenesis,: 14(5): 449- 456.
- Birnboin, H.C. and Jevcak, J.J., 1981. Flourimetric method for Rapid detection of DNA strand breaks in human white blood cells produced by low doses of radiation. Cancer Research, 41: 1889-1892.
- Bolognesi, C., Creus, A., Ostrosky-Wegman, P. and Marcos, R., 2011. Micronuclei and pesticide exposure. Mutagenesis, 26, 19–26.
- Booth, E.D., Jones, E. and Elliott, B.M., 2007. Review of the in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity of dichlorvos, Regul Toxicol Pharmacol.: 49(3):316-326.
- Frank, R., Braun, H.E. and Clegg, B.S., 1990. Survey of farm wells for pesticides, Ontario, Canada, 1986 and 1987, Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 44, 410-419.
- Hazarika, R. and Das, M., 1998. Toxicological impact of BHC on the ovary of the airbreathing catfish Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch), Bull Environ Contam Toxicol., 60:16-21.
- John, P.J., 2007. Alteration of certain blood parameters of freshwater teleost Mystes viptatus after chronic exposure to Metasystox and Sevin. Fish Physiol Biochem., 33:15-20.
- Lieberman, A.D., Craven, M.R., Lewis, H.A. and Nemenzo, J.H., 1998. Genotoxicity from domestic use of organophosphate pesticides. J Occup Environ Med. 40(11):954-957.
- Malhi, P.K. and Grover, I.S., 1987. Genotoxic effects of some organophosphorus pesticides. II. In vivo chromosomal aberration bioassay in bone marrow cells in rat. Mutat Res. 188(1):45-51.
- Noel, S and Rath, S.K., 2006. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA as a tool for genotoxicity: an assessment. Toxicology and Industrial Health, 22 (6): 267-275.
- Partanen, T., Mbakaya, C., Ohayo-Mitoko, G. and Ngowi, A.V.F., 1999. East Africa Pesticide Network: Progress, results and impact. Afr Newslett on Occup Health and Safety. 9: 4-5.
- Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F. and Maratis, T., 1989. Molecular Cloning: A laboratory Manual. Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Springs Harbor, New York, 450pp.
- Santalucia, J., 1998. A united view of polymer dumbbell and oligonucleotide DNA nearest-neighbour thermodynamics. Proceedings National Academy of Science, 95(4): 1460- 1465.
- Shadnia, S., Azizi, E., Hosseini, R., Khoei, S., Fouladdel, S., Pajoumand, A., Jalali, N. and Abdollahi, M., 2005. Evaluation of oxidative stress and genetoxicity in organophosphorus insecticide formualators. Hum Exp Toxicol., 24(9): 439-445.
- Weinberg, H.S., Korol, A.B. and Kirzhner, V.M., 2001. Very high mutation rate in offspring of Chenobyl accident liquidators, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 268 (1471): 1001-1005.
- Wolfe, H.R., Staiff, D.C. and Armstrong, J.F., 1973. Persistance of parathion in soil. Bull Env Contamn Toxicol., 10:1-9.
Cite this Article:
International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.