Forest resources play a crucial role for many livelihoods in the rural areas in Myanmar. Households in rural area of Myanmar, especially destitute households, depend on the forest related activities as one of the income diversification activities. This study estimated forest dependency and identified factors influencing dependency for households living around the Popa Mountain Park (PMP) in Myanmar. A sample of 75 households was randomly selected from three villages surrounding the Popa Mountain Park to analyze the significant of forest income in the rural household economy. The data were collected using structured questionnaire interviews, direct observation and group discussion. This study found that forest income contributes 38.82%, and farm income and non-farm income contribute 34.87% and 26.31% to the total household income respectively. Major forest products around PMP include firewood, medicinal plants, bamboo shoot, honey and others. OLS Regression analysis showed that agricultural income and non-farm income are scientifically and negatively correlated with the forest income. The findings go along with that of similar studies that, providing alternative source of income for the livelihood either through employment opportunities or by a source of income from cultivation would greatly reduce the dependence on the forest. The study concluded that consideration to socioeconomic characteristics of households living around PMP is essential in forestry conservation programs. Therefore, the government should consider measures to increase agricultural production and generate off- farm employment opportunities for rural communities in general and enhance conservation around Popa Mountain Park in particular. Also environmental education programmes should be encouraged in order to reduce dependence on the protected forests.
Protected Area, forest dependency, livelihood, Popa Mountain Park, Myanmar
- Allendorf, T., K. K. Swe, T. Oo, Y. Htut, M. Aung, M. Aung, P. Leimgruber, and C. Wemmer 2006. Community attitudes toward three protected areas in Upper Myanmar. Environ.Conserv. 33(4):344–352.
- Allendorf, T. D. 2007. Residents’ attitudes toward three protected areas in south western Nepal. Biodivers. Conserv. 16:2087–2102.
- Angelsen, A. et al. 2014. Environmental Income and Rural Livelihoods: A Global-Comparative Analysis. World Development Vol. 64, pp. S12–S28. 2014. http://dx.doi.org /10.1016/j. worlddev.2014.03.006
- Andam, K. S., P. J. Ferraro, A. Pfaff, G. A. Sanchez-Azofeifa, and J. A. Robalino. 2008. Measuring the effectiveness of protected area networks in reducing deforestation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105(42):16089–16094.
- Alkan, H., M. Korkmaz, and A. Tolunay. 2009. Assessment of primary factors causing positive or negative local perceptions on protected areas. J. Environ. Eng. Landscape Manage. 17(1):20–27.
- Bahuguna, V.K. 2000. Forests in the economy of the rural poor: an estimation of the dependence level. Ambio 29: 126–129. (Cameroon)
- Babulo, B. et al.. 2008. The economic contribution of forest resource use to rural livelihoods in Tigray. Forest policy and Economics 11(2009) 109-117.
- Cavendish W. (2000) Empirical regularities in the poverty-environment relationship of rural households: Evidence from Zimbabwe. World Development, 28(11):1979-2003.
- D. K. Langat,1 (2015) Role of Forest Resources to Local Livelihoods: The Case of East Mau Forest Ecosystem, Kenya Kenya Forestry Research Institute
- Garrant, K. 1982. The relationship between adjacent land and protected areas: Issues of concern for the protected area manager. In. McNeely, J.A. and Miller, K.R. (eds). National Parks, Conservation and Development: the role of protected areas in sustaining society. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. pp. 65-71.
- Gunatilake H.M. (1996), An economic impact assessment of the proposed conservation program on peripheral communities in the Knuckles forest range of Sri Lanka. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 3:1-15.
- Gunatilake H.M. (1998) The role of rural development in protecting tropical rainforests: evidence from Sri Lanka. Journal of Environmental management, 53:273-292.
- Ghimire K.B. Pimbert M.P. (1997) Social change and conservation: An overview of issues and concepts. Pages 1-45 in K.B. Ghimire and M.P. Pimbert, editors. Social change and conservation: Environmental politics and impacts of national parks and protected areas. London: Earthscan Publications Limited
- Hedge R., Enters, T. (2000) Forest products and household economy: a case study from Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Southern India. Environmental Conservation, 27:250-259.
- Illukpitiya, P. and Yanagida J. F. 2008. Role of income diversification in protecting natural forests: evidence from rural households in forest margins of Siri Lanka. Agroforest Syst (2008) 74:51–62, DOI 10.1007/s10457-008-9153-2
- Julius Chupezi Tieguhong 2012 .Household dependence on forests around lobeke National Park, Cameroon197-200
- Kamanga, P., Vedeld, P., Sjaastad, E. 2008. Forest incomes and rural livelihoods in Chiradzulu District, Malawi. Ecological Economics 68(2009) 613-624
- Mohamed G. Shibia(2010): Determinants of Attitudes and Perceptions on Resource Use and Management of Marsabit National Reserve, Kenya
- Masozera, M. K. 2002. Socioeconomic impact analysis of the conservation of the Nyungwe forest reserve, Rwanda.
- Masozera , M.K. and Alavalapati, J.R.R. 2004. Forest dependency and its implication for protected areas management: A case study from Nyungwe Forest Reserve, Rwanda. Scand.J. For. Res. 19(Suppl. 4): 85–92.
- Mamo, G., Sjaastad, E. and Vedeld, P. 2006. Economic dependence on forest resources: A case from Dendi District, Ethiopia. Forest Policy and Economics 9 (2007) 916–927
- Naing Z. Htun, March 2008, Effect of Protected Area on Forest Vegetation and Local People’s Responses, A Case Study in Popa Mountain Park, Myanmar.
- NWCD. 2007. Lists of protected area in Myanmar, Nature and Wildlife Conservation Division, Forest Department, Myanmar.
- Pyi Soe Aung, September 2012, Understanding Forest Dependency and Resource Extraction of Local Communities living around the Protected Area in Myanmar: A Case Study in Natma Taung National Park, Myanmar.
- Rao, M., Rabinowitz, A. & Khaing, S. T. 2002. Status Review of the Protected-Area System in Myanmar, with Recommendations for Conservation Planning. Conservation Biology, 16, 360-368.
- Rayamajhi, S., Smith-hall, C., HELLES, F. 2012. Empirical evidence of the economic importance of Central Himalayan forests to rural households. Forest Policy and Economics 20 (2012) 25–35.
- Reardon T., Vosti S. (1995) Links between rural poverty and the environment in developing countries: asset categories and investment poverty. World Development, 23:1495-1506.
- Pretzsch, J. (2003). Forest related rural livelihood strategies in national and global development. Paper presented at The International Conference on Rural Livelihoods, Forests and Biodiversity 19-23 May 2003, Bonn, Germany
- Saha, D. & Sundriyal, R.C. 2011. Utilization of non-timber forest products in humid tropics: Implications for management and livelihood. Forest Policy and Economics 14 (2012) 28–40
- S. Chao, Forest People: Numbers across the World, Forest Peoples Program, Moreton-in-Marsh, UK, 2012 page 7
- Shrestha, R. K., and J. R. R. Alavalapati. 2006. Linking conservation and development: An analysis of local people’s attitude towards Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal.
- Sandker, M., Campbell B M., Nzooh Z., Sunderland T., Amougou V., Defo L. and Sayer J. 2009. Exploring the effectiveness of integrated conservation and development interventions in a Central African forest landscape. Biodiversity Conservation February 2009.
- Shackleton, C. M. (2004). Assessment of the livelihoods importance of forestry, forests and forest products in South Africa (Manuscript). Grahamstown: Rhodes University.
- Studsrod J.E., Wegge P. (1995) Park people relationships: the case of damages caused by park animals around the Royal Bardia National Park, Nepal. Environmental conservation, 22:133-142.
- Scoones, I. (1998). Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: A Framework for Analysys. IDS Working Paper 72. Institute of Development Studies (IDS).
- Vedeld, P., Angelsen, A. Sjaastad, E. and Berg, G.K. 2004. Counting on the environment: Forest incomes and the rural poor. Environment Department Paper # 98. World Bank. 95 p.
- William M. Fonta; The Distributional Impacts of Forest Income on Household Welfare in Rural Nigeria ,ISSN 2222-1700
- Walpole, M. J., and H. J. Goodwin. 2001. Local attitudes towards conservation and tourism around Komodo National Park, Indonesia. Environ. Conserv. 28(2):160–166.
- Xu, J., L. Chen, Y. Lu, and B. Fu. 2006. Local people’s perceptions as decision support for protected area management in Wolong Biosphere Reserve, China. J. Environ. Manage. 78:362–372.
International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.