Livelihoods of community are largely based on the forest; they could be expected to be strongly committed to preserving the forest and its non-timber forest products (NTFP) resources while at the same time using them for their daily livelihood. Local benefits are limited to the uses of forest resources. The incomes achieved are barely enough to support and improve the livelihoods while many study have revealed that resource are being declined due to over exploitation. The objective of study is to evaluate the process of community forestry and how community forestry contributes to maintain sustainable resource and to the local livelihood wellbeing. 125 households were selected randomly for the questionnaire survey in Toul Kaki commune. Logistic regression results have revealed that most of local household depend mostly on fishing in mangrove forest. Logistic regression also shown crop plantation and rice farming were also important after fishing activities to the share of better off of local household. In conclusion, as the community forestry in Toul Kaki is more rely on rice farming and fishery resource, this community forestry has a great different from other community forestry. Fishery resources are the main contribution from forest as the main NTFPs in the community. However, the community forestry has been successfully implemented since more household are betteroff after 5 years of establishment of CF. Forestry commune council was the most active local institute helping and support local community for their livelihood activities with the help of local NGOs that were doing relevant activities.
Cambodia, livelihood, effectiveness, multiple regression, NTFPs, local institute, mangrove forest, and fishery resources
- Alexandra B, Christian S, David H. G and Koy R. 2014, Forest Land Conversion and Conversion Timber Estimates, Cambodia Case Study, NEPCon as commissioned by Forest Trends.
- Azhar B., David B. L., Wood J., Fischer J., Zakaria, M., 2014, Ecological impacts of oil palm agriculture on forest mammals in plantation estates and smallholdings, Biodiversity and Conservation, May 2014, Volume 23, Issue 5, pp 1175-1191
- Biddulph, R. 2010. Geographies of evasion: the development industry and property rights interventions in early 21st century Cambodia. University of Goethenburg, Departments of Geography Series B, No. 117.
- Blomley, T., T. Prom, K. Mam, D. Eam, and M. Dubois. 2010. Review of Community Forestry and community fisheries in Cambodia. Report prepared for the Natural Resource Management
- Brian W., and Gray S., 2006. Species richness and evenness respond in a different manner to propagule density in developing prairie microcosm communities, Springer Science and Business Media B.V. 2006
- Braeutiga D.,2003, Community Based Forest Management in Cambodia and Laos, MRC-GTZ Cooperation Programme, Phnom Penh, October 2003, Working Paper 3
- Dodds K., 2002. Freshwater Ecology: Concepts and Environmental Applications, Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA, 2002
- Camille B. 1997., An Economic Analysis of Tropical Forest Land Use Option, Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia, Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia, Singapore 912404
- CDRI, 2014, Cambodia Development Review, Community Forestry for Sustainable Forest Management and Livelihoods, Volume 18, Issue 3.
- Chanthou H., 2014, Assessing Community Based Natural Resources Management Effectiveness in Siem Reap Province, Department of Research Forum, April 2014, No.04
- Cheam P. V., 2009, NGO’s Approach to Community Development in Rural Cambodia, CICP, No 30, 2009.
- De Lopez T. T., 2000, Resource Degradation, Property Rights, Social Capital and Community Forestry in Cambodia, Cambodian Research Centre for Development (CRCD), Kingdom of Cambodia.
- De Zoysa M., and Inoue M., 2008, Forest Governance and Community Based Forest Management in Sri Lanka: Past, Present and Future Perspectives, International Journal of Social Forestry (IJSF), 2008, 1(1):27-49, www.ijsf.org.
- Elliott V. et al, 2010, Biodiversity Surveys in the Community forestrys of Oddar Meanchey, Cambodia, Birdlife International, January 2011
- Fichtenau J. et al., 2002, An Assessment of ongoing Community Forestry Initiatives in Cambodia-Implications for the Development of a Forestry Extension Strategy, Department of Forestry and Wildlife, Phnom Penh, 2002.
- Food and Agriculture Organization, (na year), Forestry Department, National Forest Products Statistics, Cambodia
- Food and Agriculture Organization, 2010, Growing green assets: Removing constraints to private sector investment in forestry in Asia and the Pacific, RAP PUBLICATION 2010/18
- Fox J., Vogler J. B., Poffenberger M., 2009, Understanding Changes in Land and Forest Resource Management Systems: Ratanakiri, Cambodia, Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 47, No. 3, December 2009
- Frederick C. Et al, 2013, Financial and Economic Evaluation Guidelines for Community Forestry Projects in Latin America, Program on Forests (PROFOR)
- Glen M. and Manuel B., 2014, Glen M. and Manuel B., 2014, No forest, no NTFPs for rural communities in Cambodia, No. 67, February 2014 cifor.org
- Hostetler, M.E. 2002. Bird Monitoring Projects for Youth: Leader's Guide. University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service Fact Sheet WEC 159. 6 pp. University of Florida, UF/IFAS EDIS Database, http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/UW165.
- Hugh L. W., 2012, Resource use and livelihood change in Cambodia’s dry forests: implications for conservation, BirdLife International, December 2012.
- International Fund for Agriculture Development, 2007, Rural Poverty in Cambodia, Enabling the rural poor to overcome poverty in Cambodia.
- James J. H. and Rick L. T., 2013, Forest Degradation in Cambodia: An Assessment of Monitory Options in the Central Cardamom Protected Forest, United States Forest Service, February 2013
- K.C., Birendra, "SOCIO-ECONOMIC STUDY OF COMMUNITY FORESTRYS IN MID HILLS REGION OF NEPAL" (2012)
- Kao and Iida (nnn), Structural characteristics of logged evergreen forests in Preah Vihear, Cambodia, 3 years after logging, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University 394, Tsubakuro, Sasaguri-Machi, Fukuoka 811-2415, Japan
- Keshav R. K and Ganga R. D, 2008, COMMUNITY FORESTRY POLICY AND ITS ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS: AN EXPERIENCE FROM NEPAL, International Journal of Social Forestry, 2008, 1(1):50-60. ISSN 1979-2611
- Kimsun T., at al., 2013, Levels and Sources of Household Income in Rural Cambodia 2012CDRI, August 2013, Working Paper Series No. 83
- Koy R. and Tong K., 2012, Financial viability of plantations of fast-growing tree species in Cambodia
- Kristen E. and Manuel R. G. 2008, Review of Tool, Concept and Lesson Learn of Participatory Monitoring in Tropical Forest Management,
- Larindel, S.L. AND O. Olasupoo, 2011, SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF FUELWOOD PRODUCTION IN GAMBARI FOREST RESERVE AREA, OYO STATE, NIGERIA, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, Nigeria
- Main , M. B., Hostetler, M. E., and A. Karim. 2003. Evaluating Private Lands for Conservation of Wildlife. University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service Fact Sheet WEC 164. 2 pp. University of Florida, UF/IFAS EDIS Database, http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/UW195
- Mekong River Commission, 2014, Sustainable Forest Management for Climate Change Adaptation of Rural Vulnerable, Siem Reap, Cambodia
- McKenney B., Et al, 2004, Focusing on Cambodia’s High Value Forests: Livelihoods and Management, CDRI and Wildlife Conservation Society, Cambodia.
- Motzke I., et al, 2012, Socioeconomic Context of Forest Biodiversity Use Along a Town Forest Gradient in Cambodia, National University of Singapore No. 25: 37–53, 30 Jun.2012
- Nagendra H., 2002, Tenure and forest conditions: Community Forestry in the Nepal Terai, Environmental Conservation 29 (4): 530–539, Foundation for Environmental Conservation, 2002
- Nang P., et al, 2011, Sustainable Agriculture and Environmental Protection in the Tonle Sap Plain: Improving IWRM and Farmer Practices, CDRI, Volume 15, Issue 3.
- National Institute of Statistics, 2013, Cambodia Socioeconomic Survey,Ministry of Planning, Phnom Penh, July 2014
- Phal B. et al, 2000, Touk Kaki Community forestry, Siem Reap Province, MRC/GTZ, May 2002
- Phyo Th., 2014, Impact of Community Forestry on Local Livelihood: Case study in dry zone, Myanmar, Department of Forest Science, Seoul National University.
- Pichdara L. et al., 2014, COMMUNITY FORESTRY FOR SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT AND LIVELIHOODS: A CASE STUDY OF OSOAM COMMUNITY FORESTRYUSERS GROUP, Cambodia Development Review, CDRI, Vol 13, Iss 3, September 2014
- Ra, K., Pichdara, L., Dararath, Y., Jiao, X., & Smith-Hall, C. (2011). Towards understanding household-level forest reliance in Cambodia - study sites, methods, and preliminary findings. Forest & Landscape, University of Copenhagen.
- Rossi F. J., 2007, Socioeconomic Impacts of Community forestryManagement in Rural India, University of Florida, 2007
- Sarah Milne, Sango Mahanty, 11-Feb-2015 - BUSINESS & ECONOMICS - 310 pagesConservation and Development in Cambodia: Exploring Frontiers of Change in Nature, State and Society
- Sayer J., 2005, An ITTO mission to Cambodia recommends the cautious resumption of timber-harvesting, ITTO Tropical Forest Update 15/1, 2005
- Seng H., Iida Sh., 2002, Community Forestry in Northern Cambodia, No. 55, 2002
- Socheat L. S., (unknow year), Indicating Success: Evaluation of Community Protected Areas in Cambodia, Department of Nature Conservation-Protection, Ministry of Environment Phnom Penh, Cambodia
- Stephen R., 2006, Communities, Livelihoods and Natural Resources: Action Research and Policy Change in Asia, IDRC, 01-Jan-2006 - Business & Economics pg.420
- Sunderlin, W. D., et al, 2006. Livelihoods, forests, and conservation in developing countries: An overview. World Development, 33: 1383–1402.
- Sunderlin, W. D., J. Hatcher, and M. Liddle. 2008. From exclusion to ownership. Challenges and opportunities in advancing forest tenure reform. Rights and Resources Initiative, Washington, D.C
- Tola P. and Bruce Mc., 2003, Trading Forest Products in Cambodia: Challenges, Threats, and Opportunities for Resin, Cambodia Development Resource Institute Phnom Penh
- Ty S., 2013. “Evaluation of Community Forestry in Cambodia.” Presentation at Asia Forest Workshop, Phnom Penh, 3-4 Dec
- Vittoria E., Et al., 2010, Biodiversity Assessment of the REDD Community forestryProject in Oddar Meanchey, Cambodia, Bird Life International and Pact Cambodia.
- Yasmi, Y., L. Kelley, and T. Enters. Forest conflict in Asia and the role of collective action in its management. CAPRi Working Paper No.102. Washington, D.C.: International Food Policy Research Institute. http://dx.doi.org/10.2499/CAPRiWP102
- Yeang, D. (2012). Community Tenure Rights and REDD+: A Review of the Oddar Meanchey Community Forestry REDD+ Project in Cambodia. ASEAS - Austrian Journal of South-East Asian Studies, 5(2), 263-274.
International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.