Background: Neonates admitted and treated at neonatal intensive care units (NICU) are at increased risk of developing hypertension. We measured blood pressure of infants who survived from the neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) during follow up. We are reporting the patterns of blood pressure of these infants. Short of appropriate BP apparatus, BP is not routinely measured in resource limited settings. Timely identification of high BP could help to avert the occurrence of target organ damage. Objectives: To assess the pattern of blood pressure and associated factors for hypertension in infants who survived from the NICU. Materials and methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted from January 2015 to September 2016 at Tikur Anbessa Hospital High Risk Infant Clinic (HRIC). Three measurements were taken at each visit and mean blood pressure was taken for analysis. Infants with high BP in the first visit were followed for two more visits 4 weeks apart. Systolic or diastolic blood pressure > 95th percentile for gender and age is considered hypertension. Results: Blood pressure was measured for 394 infants from 1 month to 24 months of age. More than half (56.1%) were male. Eleven infants (2.8 %) were hypertensive in three subsequent visits; 3 were females and 8 males. Four were admitted at birth because of prematurity, low birth weight; small for gestational age, hypothermia and sepsis but 7 were term infants with perinatal asphyxia and sepsis. Binary logistic regression didn’t show statistically significant association between high BP and patient characteristics at admission. Conclusion and recommendation: Routine blood pressure monitoring should be the standard practice in the care of high risk infants. Longitudinal studies are recommended to see the pattern and associated risk factors for HBP in survivors of the NICU.
high risk infant clinic, neonate, Ethiopia, neonatal intensive care unit, high blood pressure
- Alison L.Kent, Sandra Meskell, Micheal C.Falk. Normative blood pressure data in non-ventilated premature neonates from 28-36 weeks gestation. Pediatr Nephrol; 24: 141-46, 2009
- Kent AL, Kecskes Z, Shadbolt B, Falk Mc. Normative blood pressure data in the early neonatal period. Pediatr Nephrol, 22: 1335-41, 2007
- Adelman RD. Neonatal hypertension. Pediatr Clin North Am; 25, 99-110, 1978
- Joseph T.Flynn. Neonatal hypertension: diagnosis and management. Pediatr Nephrol; 14: 332-41, 2000
- Inglefinger JR. Hypertension in the first year of life ‘in Pediatric hypertension’ Inglefinger JR (ed). Saunders, Philadelphia:, 229-40, 1982
- Arar My.Hogg RJ, Arant BS, Seikaly MG. Etiology of sustained hypertension in children in the Southwestern United States. Pediatr Nephrol 8:186-9
- J.M. Gupta, and J.W.Scopes. Observation on BP in newborn infants. Archi Dis Child, 1965; 40,637
- Swiet M de, Fayers P, Shinebourne EA. Systolic blood pressure in a population of infants in the first year of life: the Brompton Study. Pediatrics 65:1028-35
- Zubrow AB, Hulman S, Kushner H, Falkner B. Determinants of blood pressure in infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units: a prospective multicenter study. J. Perinatol 15: 470-9
- Task Force on Blood Pressure Control in Children. Report of the Second Task Force on Blood Pressure Control in Children. Pediatrics; 79: 1-25, 1987
- Friedman AL, Hustead VA. Hypertension in babies following discharge from a neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatr Nephrol;1:30-34, 1987
- Mc Gravy ST, Zinner SH. Blood pressure in infancy. Semin Nephrol 9:260-6,…..
- Seliem WA, Falk MC, Shadbolt B, Kent AL. Anti-natal and Post-natal risk factors for neonatal hypertension and infant follow up. Pediatr Nephrol; 22:2081-87, 2007
- Singh HP, Hurley RM, Meyers TF. Neonatal hypertension: incidence and risk factors. Am J Hypertens; 5:51-55, 1992
- Buchi KF, Siegler RL. Hypertension in the first month of life. J Hypertens; 4:525-28, 1986
- Skalina MEL, Kliegman RM, Fanaroff AA. Epidemiology and management of severe symptomatic neonatal hypertension. Am J Perinatol; 3:235-39, 1986
- A.L.Kent, Z.Kecskes, B.Shadbolt, M.C.Falk. Blood pressure in the first year of life in healthy infants born at term. Pediatr Nephrol; 22:1743-49, 2007
- Fuentes RM, Notkola I.L, Shemeikka S, Tuomilehito J, Nissinen A.Tracking of systolic blood pressure during childhood: a 15-year follow-up population-based family study in eastern Finland. J Hypertens; 20:195-202, 2002
- Abman SH, Warady BA, Lum GM, Koops BL. Systemic hypertension in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J Pediatr; 104: 929-31, 1984
- Brooks WG, Weibeley RE.Emergency department presentation of severe hypertension secondary to complications of umbilical arterial catheterization. Pediatr Emerg Care;3; 104-106, 1987
- Plumer LB, Kaplan GW, Mendoza SA. Hypertension in infants- a complication of umjblical arterial catheterization. J Pediatr; 89:802-05, 1976
- Ford KT, Teplick SK, Clark RE. Renal artery embolism causing neonatal hypertension. Radiology; 113:169-70, 1974
- Seiber JJ, Taylor BJ, Williamson SL, Williams BJ, Szabo JS, Corbitt SL. Sonographic detection of neonatal umbilical artery thrombosis: clinical correlation. Am J Roentgenol; 148:965-68, 1987
- Algappan A, Malloy MH. Systemic hypertension in very low-birth weight with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: incidence and risk factors. Am J Perinatol; 15: 3-8, 1998
- Horn PT. Persistent hypertension after prenatal cocaine exposure. J Pediatr; 121:288-91, 1992
Cite this Article:
International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.