Nauclea latifolia Ethanolic Leaves Extract Moderately Hepatoprotects, but Decreases Periodic Acid-Schiff and Up-regulates Cytokeratin-7 Expression in Prophylaxis Malaria

Nauclea latifolia Ethanolic Leaves Extract Moderately Hepatoprotects, but Decreases Periodic Acid-Schiff and Up-regulates Cytokeratin-7 Expression in Prophylaxis Malaria

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Author(s)

Author(s): Innocent A. Edagha, Jessie I. Ndem

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DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1295 157 501 66-72 Volume 6 - May 2017

Abstract

Some herbal antiplasmodial plants have not been investigated for their hepatotoxic and glycogen lowering effects in experimental malaria models. We investigated the histochemical and immunohistochemical effects of ethanolic leaves extract of Nauclea latifolia (NL) an antiplasmodial plant on the liver of experimental prophylactic malaria mice. Twenty (20) mice (20-24 g) were grouped after acclimatization as follows: group A administered normal saline for 3 days, then inoculated with Plasmodium berghei (Pb); group B received 500 mg per kg body weight extract for 3 days then infected with Pb; group C received 1000 mg per weight extract for 3 days then infected with Pb; group D received 5 mg per kg body weight Artemether/lumefantrine (AL) for 3 days then infected with Pb. Extracts and drug were administered orally via oro-gavage needle. Inoculums of Pb at 1x106 were injected intraperitoneally and were subsequently monitored for 72 hrs, then fasted over night, and humanely sacrificed with liver tissues excised and processed for light microscopy. Result of routine hematoxylin and eosin stain in Figure 1 revealed that group A had the most heptocellular distortions and inflammation with prominent hyperplasia compared to extract and drug treated groups (groups B - D); in figure 2 periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) showed that group A had moderate PAS expression of glycogen stores; extract groups had depleted glycogen stores compared to group D – the AL group had more glycogen stores. In figure 3 the cytokeratin-7 showed that groups A - C had moderate positivity, while group D was mild/lower. In conclusion NL ethanolic leaf extract is moderately hepatoprotective in a dose dependent manner, but decreased periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) expression of glycogen granules and moderately up-regulated cytokeratin-7 in experimental prophylaxis malaria mice.

Keywords

Hepatocytes, Malaria, Prophylaxis, Periodic acid-Schiff, Cytokeratin-7

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