With a few to assessing the qualities of water sources in Wukari local government area (LGA), a study was conducted on ground water and rivers in two settlements at Wukari LGA. For this purpose, some heavy metals (cadmium, lead, arsenic, iron, copper, mercury and manganese) and physicochemical parameters (temperature, turbidity, suspended solids, total dissolved solids, conductivity, pH, nitrate, phosphate, chloride, alkalinity, hardness and chemical/biochemical oxygen demand) were determined in water samples collected from hand–dug wells, boreholes and rivers in Puje and Avyi during wet and dry seasons using standard analytical techniques. The results showed that all the seven metals determined were detected and present at trace levels in all the water samples ranging from 0.001 ppm (Hg) in well and borehole to 0.0768 ppm (Fe) in river, and 0.001 ppm (Hg) in borehole to 0.0763 ppm (Fe) in river for Puje and Avyi, respectively. However, all the metals were found to have contained concentrations below the permissible safe level. The results further revealed that the levels of physicochemical parameters in the water samples for both wet and dry seasons are within the required standard limits set by World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water. Nevertheless, source protection is recommended for the bodies of water for the benefit of Wukari people.
Hand–dug Well, Borehole, River, Physicochemical Parameter, Wukari
- Mgbemena, N. M. (2016). Physicochemical and bacteriological analysis of borehole waters in Owerri north L.G.A. Imo State, Nigeria. J. Chem. Soc. Nigeria, 41(1), 99 – 104.
- Anzene, S. J. & Aremu, M. O. (2007). Quality and antiseptic properties assessment of indigenous black soap produced in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. J. Eng. & Appl. Sci., 2(8), 1297 – 1300
- Umo, A. E. & Okoye, C. O. B. (2006). Quality of borehole water in Nsukka Area, Enugu State, Nigeria. Annals of Natural Sciences, 6(2), 121 – 127.
- Geldreich, C. N. (2005). The bacteriology of water. Topley Wilson’s microbiology and microbial infections. 9th edn. London, Holder Arnold, pp. 57 – 63.
- Adeyeye, E. I., Akinyugha, N. J., Fesobi, M. E. & Tenabe, V. O. (1996). Determination of some metals in Claria gariepinus (Cuvier and Vallenciennes), Cyprinus carpio (L) and Oreochromis nibticus (L) fishes in a polyculture fresh water pond and their environments. Aquaculture, 147, 205 – 214.
- Aremu, M. O., Atolaiye, B. O. & Labaran, L. (2010). Environmental implication of metal concentrations in soil, plant foods and pond in area around the derelict Udege mines of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Bulletin Chem. Soc. Ethiopia, 24(3), 351 – 360.
- Smith, C. J., Hopmans, P. & Cook, F. J. (1996). Accumulation of Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cd in soil following irrigation with untreated Urban effluents in Australia. Environmental Pollution, 94(3), 317 – 323.
- Aremu, M. O., Olonisakin, A. & Ahmed, S. A. (2006). Assessment of heavy metal content in some selected agricultural products planted along some roads in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. J. Eng. & Appl. Sci., 1(3), 199 – 204.
- Ademoroti, C. M. A. (1996). Environmental Chemisry Toxicology. Foludex Press Ltd, Ibadan, pp. 180 – 184.
- Aremu, M. O., Gav, B. L., Opaluwa, O. D., Atolaiye, B. O., Sangari, D. U. & Madu, P. C. (2011). Metal concentrations of sediments and water from Rivers Doma, Farinruwa and Mada in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. J. Env. Chem. & Ecotox., 3(9), 244 – 251.
- Aiyesanmi, A. F. (2006). Baseline concentration of heavy metals in water samples from rivers within Okitipupa, southeast belt of the Nigerian bitumen field. J. Chem. Soc. Nigeria., 31(1&2), 30 – 37.
- Atolaiye, B. O., Aremu, M. O., Shaggye, D. & Pennap, G. R. I. (2006). Distribution and concentration of some mineral elements in soil sediment, ambient water and the body part of Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia quineensis fishes in River Tammah, Nasarawa State, Nigeria Current World Env., 1(2), 95 – 100.
- Davis, B. J. & Jixiang, G. (2000). Airborne particles study in five cities of China atmosphere. Environ., 34, 703 – 711.
- American Public Health Association (APHA) (1992). Standard Methods for the Examinations of Water and Wastewaters, 18th edn., Washington, DC.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2002). Current Drinking Water Standards. Office of Groundwater and Drinking Water. Government Printing Office, Washington DC.
- United Nations (UN) (1998). Global Opportunities for Reducing use of Lead Gasoline, IOMC/UNEP/CHEMICALS/98/9: Switzerland.
- Hutton, M. (1987). In: Lead, Mercury, Cadmium and Arsenic in the Environment. Hutchinson, T. C. & Mecma, K. M. (Eds.), Wiley, UK, pp. 85 – 94.
- FME, Federal Ministry of Environment (2001). National Guidelines and Standards for Water Quality in Nigeria, FME, Nigeria.
- Aiyesanmi, A. F. (2006). Baseline concentration of heavy metals in water samples from rivers within Okitipupa, Southwest belt of the Nigerian bitumen field, Nigeria. J. Chem. Soc., 31(1–2), 30 – 37.
- Aremu, M. O. & Inajoh, A. (2007). Assessment of elemental contaminants in water and selected sea–foods from River Benue, Nigeria. Curr. Would Environ., 2(2), 167 – 173.
- Kakulu, S. E. & Osibanjo, O. (1988). Trace heavy metal pollution status in sediment of the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. J. Chem. Soc. Nig., 13, 9 – 15.
- Okoye, B. C. O. (1991). Heavy metals and organisms in the Lagos Lagoon. Int. J. Environ. Studies, 37, 285 – 292.
- Wheby, M. S. (1974). Synthetic effects of iron deficiency. In: Iron, Crosby, W. H. (ed.), Midicom Inc., New York, p. 39.
- Bender, A. (1992). Meat and Meat Products in Human Nutrition in Developing Countries. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 53, FAO, Rome, Italy, pp. 46 – 47.
- Eisler, R. (1993). Zinc hazard to fish, wildlife and invertebrates. A synoptic review. US fish and wildlife service, biological report 10. Publication Unit, USFWS, Washington, DC, 20240.
- Aremu, M. O., Sangari, D. U. Musa, B. Z. and Chaanda, M. S. (2008). Assessment of groundwater and stream quality for trace metals and physicochemical contaminants in Toto local government area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Int. J. Chem. Sci., 1(1), 8 – 19.
- WHO (2004). World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, 3rd edition, Vol. 1, Geneva.
- Aremu, M. O., Gav, B. L., Opaluwa, O. D., Atolaiye, B. O., Madu, P. C. and Sangari, D. U. (2011). Assessment of physicochemical contaminants in waters and fishes from selected rivers in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Res. J. Chem. Sci., 1(4), 6 – 17.
- Templeton, R. G. (1984). Freshwater Fisheries Management Fishing, New Books Ltd., Pamham, Survey, p. 183.
Cite this Article:
International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.