Evaluation of Chenopodium album Linn. Crude Methanolic Leaf Extract for Central Antinociceptive Activity in Albino Mice using the Hot Plate Test

Evaluation of Chenopodium album Linn. Crude Methanolic Leaf Extract for Central Antinociceptive Activity in Albino Mice using the Hot Plate Test

Loading document ...
Loading page ...


Author(s): Sibusisiwe Magama, Asita Okorie Asita

Download Full PDF Read Complete Article

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1310 210 871 36-44 Volume 6 - Jun 2017


The aim of study was to evaluate the crude leaf extract of Chenopodium album for central antinociceptive activity using inbred NIH albino mice. No mortalities were observed during the 14 day period in any of the 4 groups of 5 mice per group orally given 1, 2, 3, and 5 g/kg bw respectively. It was therefore assumed that the LD50 was higher than 5 g/kg bw. Eddy’s hot plate test for antinociception using 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg bw and standard drug Aspirin (150 mg/kg bw) orally administered revealed that both Aspirin and the extract at 100 and at 150mg/kg bw exhibited significant (P < 0.05) dose-dependent antinociception compared with the negative control at the seven time intervals; 30, 60, 120,180, 240,300, 360 minutes. The maximum antinociception (71.47%) for the 150mg/kg bw group being at 30 minutes after administration and statistically not different from that of Aspirin (67.44%) at the same time interval. Between 30 and 180 minutes after oral administration of test substances, antinociception due to C. album extract (150 mg/kg bw) was statistically not different fromthatduetoAspirin. Thereafter Aspirin remained more efficacious than the extracttill the end of experiment at 360 minutes; a parallel shift from 240 minutes suggesting a similar mechanism of antinociception.


Hotplate Latency, Antinociception, Chenopodium album, Phytochemicals


  1. Abbott FV, Melzack R, Brainstem lesions dissociate neural mechanisms of morphine analgesia in different kinds of pain. Journal of Brain Research, 1982; 251(1), 149-155.
  2. Abdullahi MN, Ilyas N and Ibrahim H.Evaluation of phytochemical screening and analgesic activity of aqueous extract of the leaves of MicrotrichiaperotitiiDc(Asteraceae) in mice using hotplate method. Medicinal Plant Research, 2013; 3(5): 37-43.
  3. Abdullahi, Z. Jimmoh, AA. Patrick EB. Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory and Anti-pyretic activities of Tapinanthusdodoneifolius (DC) Danser extract using several experimental models of rodents. Journal of Biology and Genetic Research,2016; 2(1):46-56.
  4. Agrawal Mona Y, Agrawal Yogesh P and Shamkuwar Prashant B. Phytochemical and Biological Activities of Chenopodium album. International Journal of PharmTech Research,2014; 6 (1): 383-391.
  5. Ahmad M, Mohiuddin OA, MehjabeenJahan N, Anwar M, Habib S, Alam SM, Baig IA. Evaluation of spasmolytic and analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Chenopodium album Linn and its fractions. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2012; 6(31):4691-7.
  6. Almeida RN, Navarro DS, Barbosa-Filho JM. Plants with central analgesic activity. Phytomedicine, 2001; 8:310-322.
  7. Ashidi JS,Ojetola OJ,Aziba PI and Ajaiyeoba EO. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the ethanol extract of Elytraria marginata Vahl (whole plant) in Wistar rats. Journa of Pharmacognosyand Phytotherapy,2015; 7(7):126-131.
  8. Asita AO, Dingaan ME, Magama S. Lack of modulatory effect of asparagus, tomato, and grape juice on cyclophosphomide-induced genotoxicity in mice. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2008; 7 (18):3383-3388.
  9. Bagheri SM, Mohamadsadeghi H, Hejazian ES. Antinociceptive effect of seed’s essential oil of Ferula assa-foetida in Mice. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology,2017; 4(1):34-37.
  10. Barton D,and Ollis WD. Advances in Medicinal Phytochemistry. Proceedings of the International Symposium held in Marrakesh 17-18 January 1985. Organised by De Recherche Pierre Fabre. J. LibbeyEurotext.
  11. Barua CC, Talukdar A, Begum SA, Lahon LC, Sarma DK, Pathak DC and Borah P.Antinociceptive activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Achyranthesa spera Linn. (Amaranthaceae) in animal models of nociception. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 2010; 48:817-821.
  12. Begum S, Morshed T, Harun-or-Rashid, Walid R, Debnath K, Roney SI, Rahmatullah M. Antinociceptive activity of Chenopodium album L., (Chenopodiaceae) whole plants. Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences 2013;7(2):138-142.
  13. Bhattacharya A, Agrawal D, Sahu PK, Kumar S, Mishra SS and Patnaik S. Analgesic effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera on albino mice. Indian Journal of Pain, 2014; 28 (2):89-94.
  14. Biswas MK, Mridha SA, Rashid MA and Sharmin T. Membrane stabilizing and antimicrobial activities of Caladium bicolor and Chenopodium album. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences,2013; 6(5):62-65.
  15. Bromm B, Rundshugen I,Scharein E. Central analgesic effects of acetylsalicylic acid in healthy men. Arzneimittelforschung, 1991; 41(11):1123-1129.
  16. Brunton LL, Parker KL, Blumenthal DK, Buxton ILO. Goodman and Gilman’s Manual of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. McGraw-Hill. 2008. Doi:10.1036/0071443436.
  17. Chapman CR, Casey KL, Dubner R, Foley DM, Graceley RH, Reading AE. Pain measurement: an overview. Pain, 1985; 22:1-31.
  18. Chyad AH. Evaluation of anticancer, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Lepidium draba Linn. leaves. Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 2017;5(1):7-13.
  19. Dai Y, Ye WC, Wang ZT, Matsuda H, Kubo M, But PPH. Antipruritic and antinociceptive effects of Chenopodium album L. in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2002; 81:245-250.
  20. Dash PR, Rana S, Ali MS. Investigation of analgesic and cytotoxic activities of ethanol extract of Commelina appendiculata. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2015;4(3):53-59.
  21. Datta A, Bhalerao SV, Shidore PP, Tilak AV, Patil S and Deshpande T. To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of an ethanolic extract of Piper betle Linn. (paan) and its probable mechanism of action using animal models. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences 2014; 5(3): 424-431.
  22. Higuchi S, Tanaka N, Shioiri Y, Otomo S, Aihara H. The modes of analgesic action of aspirin, and the site of analgesic action of salicylic acid. International Journal of Tissue Reactions,1986;8(4):327-331.
  23. Ibironke GF, Ajiboye KI. Studies on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of Chenopodium ambrosiodes leaf extract in rats. International Journal of Pharmacology, 2007; 3(1):111-115.
  24. Ismail, H. Mirza, B. Evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant and ant-coagulant properties of Lactuca sativa (CV. Grand Rapids) plant tissues and cell suspension in rats. BioMedCentral (BMC) Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2015; 15: 199-205.
  25. Jami SI, Sultana Z, Ali E, Begum M and HaqueM. Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities on ethanolic extract of Terminalia chebula fruits in experimental animal models. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 2014; 5: 63-69.
  26. Kataria S, Shrivastava B, Kaur D, Sharma P. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Crotalaria burhia Buch.-Ham. whole plant. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 2012; 3(2):189-196.
  27. Kaur S, Jaggi RK. Antinociceptive activity of chronic administration of different extracts of Terminalia bellerica Roxb. And Terminalia chebula Retz. fruits. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 2010; (48): 925-930.
  28. Kennedy GL, Ferenz RL, Burgess BA. Estimation of acute oral toxicity in rats by determination of the approximate lethal dose rather than the LD50. J. Appl. Toxicol. 1986; 6148-148.
  29. Kokanova-Nedialkova Z, Nedialkov PT and Nikolov SDThe genus Chenopodium: Phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology and pharmacology. Pharmacognosy Review, 2009;3(6):280-306.
  30. Kumar P, Kumar S. Phytochemistry, traditional uses, pharmacology of Indian medicinal plant Chenopodium album (LINN). World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2015;4(7):404-421.
  31. Lalitha KG, Venkatachalam T, Rathinavel G, Kumar VK and Kalaiselvi P. Evaluation of analgesic activity of Evodialunu-ankenda (Gaertn) Merr. Bark. DerPharmaciaSinica2010;1(1):7-10.
  32. Le Bars D, Gozariu M, Cadden S. Animal models of nociception. Pharmacological Reviews, 2001; 53:597-652.
  33. Linn B (1984). Cutaneous nociceptors. In: Holden, Winlow W. The Neurobiology ofPain. Manchester, UK. 1984; 106.
  34. Maliehe EB and Oehrlein S. Medicinal plants and herbs of Lesotho: a visual guide to 60 species from around the country. 1997. Maseru, Lesotho: Mafeteng Development Project.
  35. Mondal H, Saha S, Awang K, Hossain H, Ablat A, Islam K, Jahan IA, Sadhu SK, Hossain G, Shilpi JA, Uddin SJ. Central stimulating and analgesic activity of the ethanolic extract of Alternanthera sessilis in mice. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2014; 14: 398-406.
  36. Morales G, Paredes A, Olivares A and BravoJ. Acute oral toxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of hydroalcoholic extract from Lampaya medicinalis Phil in rats. Biological Research, 2014, 47(6):1-7.
  37. Nigam V, Paarakh PM. Anti-ulcer Effect of Chenopodium album Linn. against gastric ulcers in rats. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, 2011; 3(4): 319-322.
  38. Obidah W, Badung HL, Ajuji J, Hakeino P and Bello H Effects of Erythrina senegalensis aqueous leaf extract in rats. American Journal of Research Communication, 2014;2(4):179-185.
  39. Omeh YS and Ezeja MI. Analgesic activity of the methanolic leaf extract of Jatrophacurcas (Linn).African Journal of Biomedical Research, 2010;13:149-152.
  40. Pal A, Banerjee B, Banerjee T, Masih M, Pal K. Hepatoprotective activity of Chenopodium album Linn. plant against paracetamol induced hepatic injury in rats. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2011; 3(3):55-57.
  41. Rajalakshimi V, Gauthaman K, Alhazzani AA, Kamalraj R, Nisar N, Devdass G. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory evaluation of ethanolic extract of Seenthil churanam. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research 2015;7(1):63-67.
  42. Rajashekar, YR. Narasimhamurthy, KM. 2017. A comparative evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of two medicinal plants Rubia cordifolia and Cassia fistula in Wistar albino rats. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology,2017;6(4): 802-806.
  43. Sajeesh T and Parimelazhagan T.Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and GC-MS Studies on Castanospermum austral A. Cunn. & C. Fraser ex Hook. The ScientificWorld Journal, 2014: 1-9.
  44. Schaible HG. Peripheral and Central mechanisms of Pain Generation. HEP. 2006. 177:3-28. Springer-Verlag. Berlin Heidelberg. In: Analgesia. Stein, C. (Ed.) 2007, VIII, 435p.Springer. http://www.springer.com/978-3-540-33822-2.
  45. Shanmugasundaram P and Venkataraman S. Anti-nociceptive activity of Hygrophila auriculata (Schum) Heine. African Journal of Traditional,Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 2005; 2 (1):62- 69.
  46. Shojaii, A, Motaghinejad, M. Norouzi, S. Motevalian, M. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the extract and fractions of Astragalus hamosus in animal models. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 2015; 14 (1):263-269.
  47. Sikarwar I, Wanjari M, Baghel SS and Vashishtha PA. Review on Phytopharmacological Studies on Chenopodium album Linn. Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2013;3(4): 3089-3098.
  48. Tripathi KD. Essentials of Medical Pharmacology. Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers. New Delhi, India, 5th edition. 2004.
  49. TrivellatoGrassi L, Malheiros A, Meyre-Silva C, da Silva Buss Z, DalmarcoMonguilhott E, Fröde TS, da Silva KABS, de Souza MM. From popular use to pharmacological validation: A study of the anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and healing effects of Chenopodium ambrosioides extract. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2013; 145: 127–138.
  50. Ulrich-Merzenich G, Panek D, Zeitler H, Vetter H, Wagner H. Drug development from natural products: Exploiting synergistic effects. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 2010; (48):208-219.
  51. Yadav R D, Jain SK, Alok S and Sharma S. Analgesic activity of ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata Linn. leaves. Der Pharmacia Lettre 2011; 3(5): 179-182.
  52. Zimudzi C, Rupende K, Kativu S, Jere J and Kunonga NI. Phytochemical and analgesic activity of root crude extracts of Dicoma niccolifera Wild (Asteraceae). Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2013; 3 (04): 165-168.
  53. Zulfiker AHM, Mahbubur Rahman M, Kamal Hossain M, Hamid K, Mazumder MEH, SohelRana M. In vivo analgesic activity of ethanol extracts of two medicinal plants – Scoparia dulcis L. and Ficus racemosa Linn. Biology and Medicine, 2010; 2(2): 42-48.

Cite this Article:

International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.

Search Articles

Issue June 2024

Volume 13, June 2024

Table of Contents

World-wide Delivery is FREE

Share this Issue with Friends:

Submit your Paper