Diversification of Host Plants as a Strategy in the Control of Plant Diseases

Diversification of Host Plants as a Strategy in the Control of Plant Diseases

Loading document ...
Page
of
Loading page ...

Author(s)

Author(s): Henrique Maia Valerio, Carlos Roberto Casela

Download Full PDF Read Complete Article

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1377 178 419 67-77 Volume 6 - Aug 2017

Abstract

With the purpose of to avoid or to reduce some of those inherent problems to the agricultural systems based on monoculture, it should be introduced and handled the diversity in the best possible way. In a high level, the monoculture of species is difficult of being modified, at least in short space of time. At the level of the varieties of plants, the diversification is relatively easy of being handled, mainly in the mixture form of cultivars, varieties or hybrid (simple, double or triples) in the farmings. These mixtures can be produced in commercial scale, with excellent results in relation to most of the experimental scales, or for small producers at a low cost, seeking a good level of control of diseases and stability in the productivity. The composition of the mixtures can be modified transiently to delay or to reduce the selection of new races capable to overcome the resistances of more than one of the components of a mixture. The main disadvantage is that the quality of the mixtures cannot be acceptable for the final consumer of the product of these diversified farmings. However, mixtures of varieties, hybrid or of lineages, can significantly improve the control of some of the most common diseases disseminated by the air and for the water. For this reason, cultural practices more diversified are, consequently, recommended to complement the resistance of the hosts, in matter, in the Sorghum bicolor-Colletotrichum sublineolum pathosystem and to reduce the selection pressure in fields.

References

  1. ALTIERI, M. A. Agroecologia. 1999. Bases científicas para una agricultura sustentable. Nordan Comunidad, Uruguai.
  2. BARRET, J. A. 1980. Pathogen evolution in multilines and variety mixtures. Z. Pflanzenschutz 87: 383-396.
  3. BERGER, R. D. 1977. Application of epidemiological principles to achieve plant disease control. Annual Review of Phytopathology 15: 165 183.
  4. BERGER, R. D. 1981. Comparison of the Gompertz and logistic equations to describe plant disease progress. Phytopathology 71: 716–719
  5. BERGER, R. D., & LUKE, H. H. 1979. Spatial and temporal spread of oat crown rust. Phytopathology 69:1199–1201
  6. BOWDEN, R., J. SHOYER, K. ROOZEBOOM, M. CLAASEN, P. EVANS, B. GORDON, B. HEER, K. JANSSEN, J. LONG, J. MARTIN, A. SCHLEGEL, R. SEARS, AND M. WITT. 2001. Performance of wheat variety blends in Kansas. Kansas State University Agric. Extension Bull. 128
  7. BRONSON, C. R., & ELLINGBOE, A. H. 1986. The influence of four unnecessary genes for virulence on the fitness of Erysiphe graminis f. sp. tritici. Phytopathology 76: 154-158.
  8. BROWNING, J. A. Current thinking in the use of diversity to buffer small grains against highly epidemic and variable foliar pathogens: problems and futures prospects. In: BREEDING STRATEGIES FOR RESISTANCE TO THE RUST OF WHEAT. CIMMYT, Mexico, D. F., 1988. P. 76090.
  9. BROWNING, J. A.; FREY, K. J. 1969. Multiline cultivars as a means of disease control. Annual Review Phytopathology 7: 355-382.
  10. BROWNING, J. A.; FREY, K. J. 1981. The multiline concept in theory and practice (APUD ref. JENKYN & PLUMB, 1981).
  11. CASELA, C. R., SANTOS, F. G., FERREIRA, A. S. 2000. Associação de patogenicidade e diversidade fenotípica de Colletotrichum sublineolum, agente causal da antracnose em sorgo. Fitopatologia Brasileira 25: 517-521.
  12. CASELA, C. R., FERREIRA, A. S. & SANTOS, F. G. 2001. Differences in competitive ability among races of Colletotrichum sublineolum in mixtures. Fitopatologia Brasileira 26: 217 – 219.
  13. CHIN, K. M., WOLFE, M. S. 1984 (a). Selection on Erysiphe graminis in pure and mixed stands of barley. Plant Pathology 33: 535-546.
  14. COOK, R. J. 1982. Use of pathogen suppressive soils for disease control. In: Suppressive Soils and Plant Disease. R. W. Schneider, ed. Minnesota: Am. Phytopath. Press. 1986. Interrelationships of plant health and the sustainability of agriculture. Am. J. Alter. Agri. 1: 19- 24.
  15. DAMICONE, J. P., SNOW, J. P., BERGGREN, G. T. 1990. Spatial and temporal spread of soybean stem canker from an inoculum point source. Phytopathology 80:571–578
  16. DILEONE, J. A.; & MUNDT, C. C. 1994. Effect of wheat cultivar mixtures on populations of Puccinia striiformis races. Plant Pathology 43: 917-930.
  17. DUNCAN, R. R., and DE MILLIANO, W. A. J. 1995. Plat disease control. Pages 35-74 in: Diseases Analysis Through Genetics and Biotechnology: Interdisciplinary Bridges to Improve Sorghum and Millet Crops. J. F. Leslie and R. A. Frederiksen, eds. Iowa State University Press, Ames.
  18. FERRANDINO, F. J., ELMER, W. H. 1992. Reduction in tomato yield due to Septoria leaf spot. Plant Dis 76: 208–211.
  19. FINCKH, M. R.; GACEK, E. S.; GOYEAU, H.; LANNOU C.; MUNDT, C. C.; MERZ, U. 2000. Cereal variety and species mixtures in practice. Agronomie 20: 813-837.
  20. GACEK, E. 1997. Summarized variety mixture information given to polish farmers. In: Variety mixtures in theory and practice, Wolfe, M. S., ed. European Union Variety and Species Mixtures working group of COST Action 817.
  21. GARRETT, K. A.; & MUNDT, C. C. 1999. Epidemiology in mixed host populations. Phytopathology 89: 984-990.
  22. GUIMARÃES, F. B., CASELA, C. R., SANTOS, F. G. 1998. Controle da antracnose do sorgo através da utilização de misturas de cultivares. Summa Phytopathologica
  23. HEADRICK, J. M., PATAKY, J. K. 1988. Spatial and temporal development of common rust in susceptible and partially resistant sweet corn hybrids. Phytopathology 78: 227–233.
  24. HUANG, R.; KRANZ, J.; WELZ, H. G. 1994. Selection of pathotypes of Erysiphe graminis f. sp. Hordei in pure and mixed stands of spring barley. Plant Pathology 43: 458-470.
  25. ICRISAT, 1983. Annual Report 1982. ICRISAT, Patancheru, A. P. 502 324, Índia.
  26. JEGER, M. J. 1983. Analysing epidemics in time and space. Plant Pathol 32: 5–11.
  27. JEGER, M. J.; VILJANEN-ROLLINSON, S. L. H. 2001. The use of the area under the disease-progress curve (AUDPC) to assess quantitative disease resistance in crop cultivars. Theorethical and Applied Genetics 102: 32–40.
  28. JOHNSON, R., & TAYLOR, A. 1976. Spore yield of pathogens in investigations of the race-specificity of host resistance. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol 14: 97-119.
  29. KOIZUMI, S.; KATO, H. 1987. Effect of mixed plantings of suscetible and resistant rice cultivars on leaf blast development. Annual Phytopathology Society Japan 53: 28-38.
  30. KOLMER, J. A. 1995. Selection in a heterogeneous population of Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici. Phytopathology 83: 909-914.
  31. LANNOU, C. 2001. Intrapathotype diversity for aggressiveness and pathogen evolution in cultivar mixtures. Phytopathology 91: 500-510.
  32. LANNOU, C., MUNDT, C. C. 1997. Evolution of a pathogen population in host mixtures: Rate of emergence of complex races. Theor. Appl. Genet. 94: 991-999.
  33. LEONARD, K. J. Genetic equilibria in host-pathogen systems. 1969 Phytopathology 59: 1858-1863.
  34. LEONARD, K. J., MUNDT, C. C. 1984. Methods for estimating epidemiological effects of quantitative resistance to plant diseases. Theorethical Applied Genetics 67: 219-230.
  35. LOEGERING, W. Q. 1951. Survival of races of wheat stem rust in mixtures. Phytopathology 41: 56-65.
  36. LUKE, H. H., BERGER, R. D. 1982. Slow rusting in oats compared with the logistic and Gompertz models. Phytopathology 72:400–402.
  37. MARSHALL, D. R.; BURDON, J. J.; MULLER, W. J. 1986. Multiline varieties and disease control. Effects of selection at different stages of the pathogen life cycle on the evolution of virulence. Theor. Applied Genetics 71: 801-809.
  38. MARTINELLI, J. A. 1993. Uso de misturas varietais para o controle de doenças de plantas. Revisão Anual de Patologia de Plantas 1: 121-142.
  39. McDONALD, B. A.; ALLARD, R. W.; WEBSTER, R. K. 1988. Responses of two-, three, and four-component barley mixtures to a variable pathogen population. Crop Science 28: 447-452.
  40. McDONALD, B. A., & LINDE, C. 2002. Pathogen Population Genetics, Evolutionary Potential, and Durable Resistance. Annu. Ver. Phytopathol 40: 349-379.
  41. MICHEL, C. A., MARTINELLI, U. A.; FREDERIZZI, L. C. 1997. Progresso da ferrugem da folha em misturas de genótipos de aveia. I. Efeitos de densidade e de barreira. Fitopatologia Brasileira 22: 479-482.
  42. MULLER, K.; McDERMOTT, J. M.; WOLFE, M. S.; LIMPERT, E. 1996. Analysis of diversity in populations of plant pathogens: the barley powdery mildew pathogen across Europe. European Journal of Plant Pathology 102: 385-395.
  43. MUNCK, L. 1997. Variety mixtures: 19 years of experience in Denmark. In: Variety Mixtures in theory and practice, Wolfe, M. S., ed. European Union Variety and Species Mixtures working group of COST Action 817.
  44. MUNDT, C. C. 2002. Performance of wheat cultivars and cultivars mixtures in the presence of Cephalosporium stripe. Crop Protection 21(2): 93-99.
  45. MUNDT, C. C. 2002 (a). Use of multiline cultivars and cultivar mixtures for disease management. Annual Review of Phytopathology 40: 381-410.
  46. MUNDT, C. C., & LEONARD, K. J. 1986. Effect of host genotype unit area on development of focal epidemics of bean rust and common maize rust in mixture of resistant and susceptible plants. Phytopathology 76: 895-900.
  47. MUNDT, C. C.; COWGER, C.; GARRETT, K. A. 2002. Relevance of integrated management to resistance durability. Euphytica (In press).
  48. MUNDT, C. C.; COWGER, C.; HOFFER, M. E. 1999, Disease management using variety mixtures. In Septoria and Stagonospora Diseases of Cereals: A Compilation of Global Research, ed. M. Van Ginkel, A McNab, J Krupinsky, p: 111-116, Mexico, DF: CIMMYT.
  49. MUNDT, C. C.; LEONARD, K. J. 1985. Effect of host genotype unit area on epidemic development of crown rust following focal and general inoculations of mixtures of immune and susceptible oat plants. Phytopathology 75: 1141-1145.
  50. MUNK, L. 1983. Response of a powdery mildew population to a barley variety mixture. In: Durable Resistance in Crops, ed. F Lamberti, J M Waller, N A Van der Graaf, pp. 105-7. New York: Plenum.
  51. NEWTON AC, GUY DC, NADZIAK J, GACEK E, 2002. The effect of inoculum pressure, germplasm selection and environment on spring barley cultivar mixtures efficacy. Euphytica 125: 325-335.
  52. NGUGI, H. K. 1998. Epidemiology and management of sorghum anthracnose and leaf blight in Kenya. Ph.D. thesis. University of Reading, UK.
  53. NGUGI, H. K., KING, S. B., and JULIAN, A. M. 2001. Simultaneous temporal progress of sorghum anthracnose and leaf blight in crop mixtures with disparate patterns. Phytopathology 91: 720-729.
  54. NGUGI, H. K., KING, S. B., ABAYO, G. O. AND REDDY, Y. V. R. 2002. Prevalence, incidence, and severity of sorghum diseases in western Kenya. Plant Disease 86 (1): 65-70.
  55. ODVODY, G. N., and HEPPERLY, P. R. 1992. Foliar diseases of sorghum. Pages: 167-177 in: Sorghum and Millet Diseases: A Second World Review. J. A. de Milliano, R. A. Frederiksen, and G. D. Bengstron, eds. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, India.
  56. OSTERGAARD, H. 1983. Predicting development of epidemics on cultivar mixtures. Phytopathology 73: 166-172.
  57. PALTI, J. 1981. Cultural Practices and Infectious Crop Diseases. New York: Springer Verlag.
  58. PARLEVLIET, J. E. 1981. Stabilizing selection in crop pathosystems: an empty concept or a reality. Euphytica 30: 259-269.
  59. PENNYPACKER, S. P., KNOBLE, H. D., ANTLE, C. E., MADDEN, L. V. 1980. A flexible model for studying plant disease progression. Phytopathology 70: 232–235.
  60. RAM, B., REDHU, A. S., SINGH, S. 1989. Development of rusts and powdery mildew in mixtures of wheat varieties. Cereal Resource Communication 17: 195-201.
  61. SIFUENTES BARRERA, J. A. 1989. Evaluation of sorghum genotype mixtures for controlling sorghum leaf blight. College Station, Texas. 83p. (Phylosophy Doctor in Plant Pathology), Texas A&M University,
  62. SUBBA RAO, K. V., BERGGREN, G. T., SNOW, J. P. 1990. Characterization of wheat leaf rust epidemics in Louisiana. Phytopathology 80: 402–410.
  63. THAL, W. M., CAMPBELL, C. L., MADDEN, L. V. 1984. Sensitivity of Weibull model parameter estimates to variation in simulated disease progression data. Phytopathology 74: 1425–1430.
  64. THRESH, J. M. 1981. Pests, Pathogens and Vegetation: The Role of Weeds and Wild Plants in the Ecology of Crop Pests and Diseases. Massachusetts: Pitman Pub., Inc. 1982. Cropping practices and virus spread. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 20: 193 218.
  65. TODOROVA, M., and KURJIN, H. 1991. Studies on competitive ability of some physiological races of Puccinia recondita Ro. ex Desm. f.sp. tritici Erikss. Cereal Rusts Powdery Mildews Bull 19: 59-64.
  66. VALÉRIO, H. M., M. A., RESENDE, WEICKERT-OLIVEIRA, R. C. B., CASELA, C. R. 2005. Virulence and molecular diversity in Colletotrichum sublineolum from Brazil. Mycopathologia 159: 449-459.
  67. VALÉRIO, H. M., CASELA, C. R., M. A., RESENDE, SANTOS, F. G. 2004. Variability of the anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum sublineolum in sorghum genotype mixtures. Fitopatologia Brasileira 29(5): 567-569.
  68. VANDERPLANK, J. E. 1963. Plant Diseases: Epidemics and Control. New York: Academic Press.
  69. VANDERPLANK, J. E. 1982. Host-pathogen Interactions in Plant Disease. New York: Academic Press.
  70. VILLAREAL, L. M. M. A., and LANNOU, C. 2000. Selection for increased spore efficacy by host genetic background in a wheat powdery mildew population. Phytopathology 90: 1300-1306.
  71. WOLFE, M. S. 2000. Crop strenght through diversity. Nature 406: 681-682.
  72. WOLFE, M. S. 1985. The current status and prospects of multiline cultivars and variety mixtures for disease resistance. Annual Review Phytopathology 23: 251-273.
  73. WOLFE, M. S., BARRET, J. A. 1980. Can we lead the pathogen astray? Plant Disease 64: 148-155.
  74. WOLFE, M. S. 1997. Variety mixtures: concept and value. In: Variety Mixtures in theory and practice, Wolfe, M. S. (ed.). European Union Variety and Species Mixtures working group of COST Action 817.
  75. WOLFE, M. S.; FINCKH, M. R. 1997. Diversity of host resistance within the crop: effects on host, pathogen and disease, in: H.Hartleb, R.Heitefuss, H.H.Hoppe, (Eds.), Plant resistance to fungal diseases, G. Fischer Verlag, Jena, p: 378-400. Annual Review of Phytopathology 16: 159-180.
  76. ZADOKS, J. C., SCHEIN, R. D. 1979. Epidemiology and Plant Disease Management. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.
  77. ZHU, Y.; CHEN, H.; FAN, J.; WANG, Y.; LI, Y. 2000. Genetic diversity and disease control in rice. Nature 406: 718-722.

Cite this Article:

International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.

Search Articles

Issue April 2022

Volume 11, April 2022


Table of Contents



World-wide Delivery is FREE

Share this Issue with Friends:


Submit your Paper