Isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris (Free Living Amoeba) from Shatt Al-Arab River in Basrah, South of Iraq

Isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris (Free Living Amoeba) from Shatt Al-Arab River in Basrah, South of Iraq

Loading document ...
Page
of
Loading page ...

Author(s)

Author(s): Moker H. M., Muslim A. M.

Download Full PDF Read Complete Article

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1518 142 361 90-93 Volume 7 - Jan 2018

Abstract

Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free living, opportunistic amoeba was first discovered in 1986 in a mandrill baboon at the Wild Animal Park in California suffered from a neurological disease, later it was associated with many human CNS fatal infection and skin infection all over the world, and it considered to be ubiquitous. We investigate the presence of B. mandrillaris in Shatt Al-Arab, the main river in Basrah south of Iraq, the amoeba was identified morphologically and genetically by PCR. Trophozoite and cyst were observed in culture, the trophozoite with finger like pseudopodia that subdivided into small arms. Rounded cyst of about 13-30 µm surrounded by outer thin wrinkled layer gave the shape of a rose flower. Our finding was the first in Iraq, Balamuthia mandrillaris represent a health hazard in such main river in Basrah.

Keywords

Balamuthia mandrillaris, Opportunistic Amoeba, Shatt Al-Arab River, Basrah, Iraq

References

  1. Anzil A.; Chandrakant R., Wrzolek M.; Visvesvara G.;, Sherand J.; and Kozlowski P. (1991). Amebic meningoencephalitis in a patient with aids caused by a newly recognized opportunistic pathogen, Leptomyxid ameba. Arch Pathol Lab Med. Vol 115: 21–25
  2. A. Matin, Siddiqui R., Jayasekera S. and Khan N. A. (2008). Increasing Importance of Balamuthia mandrillaris. Clin Microbiol Rev. Vol.: 21(3): 435–448.
  3. Booton G. C.; Carmichae J.; Visvesvara G.; Byers T. and Fuerst P. (2003)a. Identification of Balamuthia mandrillaris by PCR assay using the mitochondrial 16s rRNA gene as a target. Journal of clinical microbiology, vol. 41(1): 453–455.
  4. Booton G. C.; Schuster F. L.; Carmichael J. R.; Fuersta P. A. and Byers T. J. (2003)b. Balamuthia mandrillaris: Identification of clinical and environmental isolates using genus-specific PCR. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol, pp. 508-509.
  5. Finnin, P.; Visvesvara G.; Campbell B.; Fry D.; and Gasser R.; (2007). Multifocal Balamuthia mandrillaris infection in a dog in Australia. Parasitology Research, Vol. 100(2): 423–426.
  6. Iovieno, A.; Miller, D.; Lonnen, J.; Kilvington, S. and Alfonso, E. C. (2011). Extraction of Acanthamoeba DNA by use of Chelex resin. J. Clin. Microbiol., Vol. 49: 476–477.
  7. Klieščiková J, (2013). Study of encystation of Balamuthia and Acanthamoeba . Summary of the ph.d. thesis. Charles university in Prague and academy of sciences of the Czech republic.
  8. Lokhande S.; More B.; Nikam S.; Sontakke T.; Bandar V. and Bansode V. (2015). Morphological studies on two rare water amoeba Balamuthia mandrillaris and vannella miroides from godavari basin at gangapur and vaijapur. international journal of recent scientific research vol. 6(6): 4386-4388.
  9. Martinez, A. J.; and Visvesvara, G. S. (1997). Free-living, amphizoic and opportunistic amebas. J. Brain Pathol., Vol. 7(1):583–598.
  10. Mirhendi, S.H.; Makimura K.; Khoramizadeh M. and Yamaguchi H. (2006). A one-enzyme PCR-RFLP assay for identification of six medically important Candida species. Jap. J. Med. Mycol., Vol. 47: 225-229.
  11. MMWR. (2010). Morbidity mortality weekly report. Balamuthia mandrillaris Transmitted Through Organ Transplantation, Mississippi, 2009. 59(36);1165-1170. www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/
  12. Schuster F. L. (2002). Cultivation of Pathogenic and Opportunistic Free-Living Amebas. Clin Microbiol Rev. 15(3): 342–354.
  13. Schuster, F. L., Dunnebacke, T. H., Booton, G. C. & 9 other authors (2003). Environmental isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris associated with a case of amebic encephalitis. J Clin Microbiol. Vol. 41: 3175–3180.
  14. Schuster F. L.; Yagi S.; Gavali S.; Michelson D.; Raghavan R.; Blomquist I.; Glastonbury C; Bollen A. W.; Scharnhorst D.; Reed S. L.; Kuriyama S.; Visvesvara G. S. and Glaser C. A. (2009). Under the Radar: Balamuthia Amebic Encephalitis. Clinical Infectious Diseases Vol. 48:879–87.
  15. Siddiqui R.; Khan N. A.(2015). Balamuthia mandrillaris: Morphology, biology, and virulence. Vol. 5: 15-22.
  16. Visvesara, G.S., Schuster, F.L. & Martinez, A.J. (1993). Balamuthia mandrillaris, N.G., N.Sp., agent of amebic meningoencephalitis in humans and other animals. J.Euk.Microbiol. Vol. 40:504-514.
  17. Visvesvara G. S.; Martinez A. J; Schuster F. L.; Leitch G. J.; Wallace S. V.; Sawyers T. K. and Anderson M. (1990). Leptomyxid ameba, a new agent of amebic meningoencephalitis in humans and animals. Journal of clinical microbiology, Vol. 28 (12): 2750-2756.
  18. Visvesvara G. S.; Booton G. C.; Kelley D. J.; Fuerst P.; Sriram R.; Finkelstein A. and Garner M. M. (2007)a. In vitro culture, serologic and molecular analysis of Acanthamoeba isolated from the liver of a keel-billed toucan (Ramphastos sulfuratus). Vet Parasitol. Vol. 143(1): 74-8.
  19. Visvesvara G. S.; Moura H. and Schuste F. L. (2007)b. Pathogenicand opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris , Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. Vol. 50: 1–26.
  20. Yousuf F. A., Siddiqui R., Subhani F. and Khan N. A. (2013). Status of free-living amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris) in drinking water supplies in Karachi, Pakistan. J. Water and Health, V0l. 11:371-75.

Cite this Article:

  • BibTex
  • RIS
  • APA
  • Harvard
  • IEEE
  • MLA
  • Vancouver
  • Chicago

International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.

Search Articles

Issue October 2019

Volume 8, October 2019


Table of Contents


Order Print Copy

World-wide Delivery is FREE

Share this Issue with Friends:


Submit your Paper