In the period 1990-2012, the percentage for open defecation has dropped by 11% in sub-Saharan Africa which has resulted to substantial progress in access to improved sanitation facilities i.e. pit latrines, VIPs, septages and centralized sewage facilities since 1990 [figure 1]. This therefore put at ease the operations of many municipal’s water resource and waste management agencies. Recent investigation confirms that the number of people defecating in the open is currently increasing in 26 of 44 countries of sub-Saharan Africa and this unsustainable practice is predicted to persist as long as there are toilets that are dysfunctional or unhygienic (WRC, 2015) in Africa. Per review conducted, the unhygienic and dysfunctional conditions of public toilets facilities are results of poor sludge management operations of which inconsistent collection of faecal sludge from toilet sites is a major part. Reported cause of inconsistent emptying of faecal sludge at sanitation sites is due to higher cost of faecal sludge management(FSM) services within urban and peri-urban settlements. FSM services comprise of three stages i.e. collection, treatment & re-use, and disposal of which the treatment stage accrue the most cost of the services. Treatment cost depends on treatment techniques applied by sanitation inspectors/operators but there is currently no definite treatment method which is the most suitable as the physico-chemical properties and environmental compliance requirements for disposal of faecal sludge is highly variable and most solutions have not been demonstrated at scale. To be precise on the key scope of study, on-site sanitation & centralized facility faecal sludge treatment techniques and management practices are deemed the core basis of study hereafter. In this paper, anaerobic-aerobic phosphorous removal process (A/O) is selected as an efficient and cost-effective centralized facility sludge treatment technique and its applied to a case study in Bujumbura municipal of Burundi. Also a simple but effective on-site sanitation management plan which is feasible in Africa communities is discussed.
- Slabbert S associates 2015 the Status of Faecal Sludge Management in Eight Southern and East African Countries
- Prabu S L, Suriyaprakash T N K and Kumar J A 2011 Wastewater treatment technologies: A review Pharma Times 43 9–13
- Henze M and Harremoës P 1983 Anaerobic treatment of wastewater in fixed film reactors - A literature review Water Sci. Technol. 15 1–101
- Thye Y P, Templeton M R and Ali M 2011 A Critical Review of Technologies for Pit Latrine Emptying in Developing Countries Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41 1793–819
- Strauss M 2002 Fecal Sludge Management in Developing Countries
- Pengfei D, Wentao D and Yi Q 2000 Primary and secondary municipal wastewater treatment cost comparison
- Cofie O O, Agbottah S, Strauss M, Esseku H, Montangero A, Awuah E and Kone D 2006 Solid–liquid separation of faecal sludge using drying beds in Ghana: Implications for nutrient recycling in urban agriculture Water Res. 40 75–82
- Tilley E, Ulrich L, Luthi C, Philippe R and Zurbrugg C 2008 Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies Swiss Fed. Inst. Aquat. Sci. Technol. Water Supply Sanit. Collab. Counc. (WSSCC). 2
- Forbis-Stokes A A, O’Meara P F, Mugo W, Simiyu G M and Deshusses M A 2016 On-Site Fecal Sludge Treatment with the Anaerobic Digestion Pasteurization Latrine Environ. Eng. Sci. 33 898–906
- Guyer J P An Introduction to Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Plants By An Introduction to Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Plants
- Diameter S and Sewers G 2000 Decentralized Systems Technology Fact Sheet Environ. Prot. 1–4
- Rajasulochana P and Preethy V 2016 Comparison on efficiency of various techniques in treatment of waste and sewage water – A comprehensive review Resour. Technol. 2 175–84
Cite this Article:
International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.