Prevalence of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Clinical Samples

Prevalence of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Clinical Samples

Loading document ...
Loading page ...


Author(s): W. Braide, L.C. Madu, S.A. Adeleye, M.C. Korie, C.I. Akobondu

Download Full PDF Read Complete Article

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1556 126 504 89-93 Volume 7 - Feb 2018


There has been an increasing attention globally over the rising treatment failures caused by Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing organisms when new generation antibiotics are used. This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of ESBL producing Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from the Federal Medical Centre (FMC) Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. Two hundred and fifty clinical isolates comprising, E. coli (136) and P. aeruginosa (114) was used for the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of isolates was determined using the disc diffusion method. ESBL phenotypes were further determined by the double disc synergy test using Ceftazidime, Cefotaxime, Ceftriazone and Amoxicillin clavulanic acid. Out of the 250 isolates tested, 114 (45.6%) were positive for ESBL production comprising 66(26.4%) E. coli and 48(19.2%) P. aeruginosa. The antimicrobial sensitivity testing showed that the highest resistance of 100% was recorded with Cephalexine while the least of 0% was recorded with the aminoglycosides and quinolones, giving a clear indication that the aminoglycosides and quinolnes could be recommended for the treatment of ESBL infections caused by these organisms. The result of the present study showed that there is apparently high prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli and P. aeruginosa in the Federal Medical Centre (FMC) Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.


Escherichia coli, ESBL, Prevalence, Antimicrobial susceptibility


  1. Aibinu, I.E., Ohaghulam, V.C., Adenipekun, E.A., Ogunshola, F.A., Odugbemu, T.O and Mee, B.J. (2003). Extended Spectrum ß-lactamase Enzymes in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae species from Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of Clincal Microbiology. 41 (5) 2197-2200.
  2. Akujobi, C.N and Ewuru, C.P. (2010). Detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamases in gram negative bacilli clinical specimens in a teaching hospital in south eastern Nigeria. Nigerian Medical Journal. 51:141-6.
  3. Bhusal, Y., Mihu, C.N., Tarrand, J.J and Rolston, K.V. (2011). Incidence of fluoroquinolone-resiatant and extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli at a comprehensive cancer center in the United State. Chemotherapy, 57 (4):335-338.
  4. Bradford, P.A. (2001). Extended Spectrum ß-lactamases in the 21st century; characterization, epidemiology and detection of this important resistance threat. Clinical Microbiology. Rev. 14:933-951.
  5. Cheesbrough, M. (2005). District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. 2nd Edition.
  6. Cambridge University Press. U.K. pp 465-478.
  7. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, CLSI (2009). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, 19th informational supplement, M100–S19. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.
  8. Haque, R and Salam, M. (2010). Detection of ESBL producing nosocomial gram negative bacteria from a tertiary care hospital in Bangladesh. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 26(4): 887-891.
  9. Iroha, I.R., Adikwu, M.C., Esimone, C.O., Amadi, E.S and Aibinu, I. (2009). Extended Spectrum Beta lactamase (ESBL) in Escherichia coli isolates from a tertiary hospital in Enugu State. Pakistan Journal of Medical Science; 25(2):279-288.
  10. Jean, S., Teng, L., Hauch, P., and HosLuh, K. (2002). Antimicrobial susceptibility among clinical isolates of extended spectrum cephalosporin-resistant gram-negative in a Taiwanese University. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 49:69-79.
  11. Jones, R.N. (2001). Resistance pattern among nosocomial pathogens. Trends over the past few years. Chest., 119(2): 397-404.
  12. Kiratisin, P., Apisarnthanarak, A., Laesripa, C and Saifon, P. (2008). Molecular Characterization and Epidemiology of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates Causing Health Care-Associated Infection in Thailand, Where the CTX-M Family is Endemic. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 52: 2818-2824.
  13. Madja, Q., Najma, A and Summyia, B. (2013). Evaluation of extended spectrum beta-lactamase mediated resistance in Escherichia coli in a tertiary care hospital. Biomedica, 29: 78-81.
  14. Nasa, P., Juneja, D., Singh, O., Dang, R and Singh, A. (2012). An observational study on bloodstream extended spectrumbeta-lactamase infection in critical centre unit: incidence, risk factorsand its impact on outcome. European Journal. Intern. Med., 23(2): 192-195.
  15. Nwosu, I.L., Amadi, E.S., Nwanyanwu, C.E., Chikwendu, I.C and Madu, C.L. (2014). The prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBLs) among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species urinary isolates from Abia State University Teaching Hospital (ABSUTH) Aba, Abia State. International Journal of Microbiology and Mycology, 2(3):20-28.
  16. Padmini, S., Baby, R., Appalla, B and Mani, K.R. (2008). Detection of Enterobacteriaceae producing CTX-M extended spectrum β- lactamase from a tertiary care hospital in India. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 26(2), 163-166.
  17. Paterson, D. L., Hujer, K. M., Hujer, A.M., Yeiser, B., Bonomo, M.D., Rice, L.B and Bonomo, R.A. (2003). The International Klebsiella Study Group Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases in Klebsiella pneumoniae Bloodstream Isolates from Seven Countries: Dominance and Widespread Prevalence of SHV- and CTX-M- Type Beta-Lactamases. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.. 47: 3554-3560.
  18. Paterson, D.L and Bonomo, R.A. (2005). Extended-spectrum β-lactamases: A clinical update. Microbiol. Clin. 18:657–86.
  19. Quale, J.M., Landman, D and Bradford, P.A. (2002). Molecular epidemiology of a citywide out breaks of extended spectrum bet-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. Clin. Infect. Dis., 35:834-841.
  20. Rupinder, B., Geeta, W and Shikha, J. (2013). Prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases in multidrug resistant strains of Gram negative Bacilli. Journal Acad. Indus. Res., 1(9): 558-560.
  21. Ruth, A.A., Damian, C.O., Romanus, I.I and Charles, O.E. (2011). Antimicrobial resistant status and prevalence rates of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producers isolated from a mixed human population. Bosnian Journal Basic Medical Science, 11(2): 91-96.
  22. Sabrina, J.M., Said, A., Mabula, K., Eliguis, F.L and Samrel, Y.M. (2010). Antimicrobial resistance among producers and non producers of extended beta-lactamases in urinary isolates at a tertiary hospital in Tanzania. BMC Research Notes, 3:348.
  23. Sankar, S., Narayanan, H., Kuppanan, S and Nandagopal, B. (2012). Frequency of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Gram negative bacilli in a 200-bed multi-specialty hospitalin Vallore district, Tamil, Nadu, India. Infection, 40(4): 425-429.
  24. Sasirekha, B., Manasa, R., Ramya, P and Sneha, R. (2010). Frequency and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of extended spectrum β-lactamases producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated in a tertiary care hospital Al Ameen. Journal of Medical Sciences, 3(4):265-271.
  25. Shakti, R., Debasmita, D., Mahesh, C., Sahu, R and Padhy, N. (2014). Surveillance of ESBL producing multidrug resistant Escherichia coli in a teaching hospital in India. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Diseases, 4(2): 140-149.
  26. Sibhghatullas, S., Jamale, F., Shazi, S., Syed, M.D.R and Mohammed, A.K. (2015). Antibiotic resistance and extended spectrum beta-lactamases: Types, Epidemiology and Treatment. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 22(1): 90-101.
  27. Talaro, K., and Talaro, A. (1996). Foundations in Microbiology. 2nd edition. WCB/McGraw-Hill USA. pp609-629.
  28. Ullah, F., Malik, S.A and Ahmed, J. (2009). Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and ESBL prevalence in Klebsiella pneumoniae from urinary tract infections in the North West of Pakistan. African Journal of Microbiology, 3(11): 670-680.
  29. Yushau, M. M., Kumurya, A. S and Suleiman, L. (2010). Prevalence of extended β-lactamases among Enterobacteriaceae in Murtala Mohammed specialty hospital, Kano. Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 3(1): 169-172.

Cite this Article:

International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.

Search Articles

Issue June 2023

Volume 12, June 2023

Table of Contents

World-wide Delivery is FREE

Share this Issue with Friends:

Submit your Paper