Download Full PDF
Read Complete Article
Volume 7 - Apr 2018
The extent of the forest resource in the Northeast Asian region is vast. Characterized by temperate and boreal forests and covering about 28% of the world’s forested area, the importance of the region’s forest resource in terms of its contribution to the global carbon cycle and maintenance of biological diversity cannot be overstated. In recent years, land use and land cover, particularly forest cover, in the region has changed significantly. Driven by wars, population growth and economic development, forests have on one hand been on the decline, but on the other hand were restored and rehabilitated at a pace and scale unimaginable in other parts of the world. Republic of Korea (South Korea) and China, both countries with vast amount of forests, serve typical case of progressive forest cover decline during socio-political transition followed by restoration and rehabilitation during period of stable reform. Nationwide forest restoration and rehabilitation projects was implemented in both China and Korea during 1970s and 1980s in order to restore degraded forests and further provide invaluable forest-related goods and services. In recent times, both countries have experienced a pronounced increase in forest area and density. However, the pace and the current directions are very different for both countries. While Korea has already achieved absolute reversal of deforestation and has begun to focus on enhancing ecosystem and economic benefits from forests, China, in part due to its vast and diverse forest landscape, is still struggling with preventing forest cover loss and meeting socio-economic needs of rural forest dependent people through series of tenure reform processes. The forest governance in both countries are also starkly different, that has shaped both pace and direction of sustainable forest management. In this context, this paper uses an analysis of literature from secondary sources to compare and contrast the past and present achievements in both countries, in order to find pragmatic solutions towards sustainable forest management and rehabilitation that would prove useful in pragmatic policy and decision making in developing countries across the Asia-Pacific region.
Sustainable Forest Management, Forest Transition, Rehabilitation, South Korea, China
- Arrow, K. (1996). Rights to nature: ecological, economic, cultural, and political principles of institutions for the environment. Island Press.
- Bae, J. S., Joo, R. W., & Kim, Y.-S. (2012). Forest transition in South Korea: reality, path and drivers. Land Use Policy, 29(1), 198–207.
- Barrow, E., & Murphree, M. (2001). Community conservation: from concept to practice. African Wildlife and Livelihoods: The Promise and Performance of Community Conservation, 24–37.
- Carle, J., Vuorinen, P., & Del Lungo, A. (2002). Status and trends in global forest plantation development. Forest Products Journal, 52(7/8), 12–23.
- Chun, Y. W., & Tak, K.-I. (2009). Songgye, a traditional knowledge system for sustainable forest management in Choson Dynasty of Korea. Forest Ecology and Management, 257(10), 2022–2026.
- Davies, E. G., & Wismer, S. K. (2007). Sustainable forestry and local people: The case of Hainan’s Li minority. Human Ecology, 35(4), 415–426.
- Dietz, T., Ostrom, E., & Stern, P. C. (2003). The struggle to govern the commons. Science, 302(5652), 1907–1912.
- Fang, J., Chen, A., Peng, C., Zhao, S., & Ci, L. (2001). Changes in forest biomass carbon storage in China between 1949 and 1998. Science, 292(5525), 2320–2322.
- FAO. (2000). State of the World’s Forests 1999. Rome, Italy: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
- Holvoet, B., & Muys, B. (2004). Sustainable forest management worldwide: a comparative assessment of standards. International Forestry Review, 6(2), 99–122.
- KFS. (2014). Lessons learned from the Republic of Korea’s National Reforestation Program (p. 50). Daejeon, South Korea: Korea Forest Service (KFS).
- KFS. (2015). 2015 Statistical Yearbook of Forestry. Daejeon, Korea: Korea Forest Service (KFS).
- Kim, B., Kwon, G., Park, G., Park, M., Park, H., Bae, I., … Lee, S. (2009). Analysis of Korean Successful Case of Reforestation. Daejeon, South Korea: Korea Forest Service.
- Kleine, M., & Lee, D. K. (2007). Rehabilitation of Degraded Forest Lands in Northeast Asia - A Synthesis. In D. K. Lee (Ed.), Keep Asia Green Volume II “Northeast Asia” (Vol. 2, pp. 7–15). IUFRO Sectreteriat, Vienna, Austria: International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO).
- Koo, J.-C., Park, M. S., & Youn, Y.-C. (2013). Preferences of urban dwellers on urban forest recreational services in South Korea. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 12(2), 200–210.
- Lee, D. K., Bae, J., Shin, J., Park, P., Park, Y., & Lee, K. (2010). Korean forests: lessons learned from stories of success and failure. Seoul, South Korea: Korea Forest Research Institute.
- Lee, D. K., & Lee, Y. K. (2005). Roles of Saemaul Undong in reforestation and NGO activities for sustainable forest management in Korea. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 20(4), 1–16.
- Li, J., Tuo, H., & Liu, X. (2009). On the factors influencing the Participatory Forest Management in rural communities in the west of China (Vol. 2, pp. 255–261). Presented at the Proceedings of 2009 International Conference on Public Administration (5th).
- Liu, J, & Innes, J. (2015). Participatory Forest Management in China: key challenges and ways forward. International Forestry Review, 17(4), 477–484.
- Liu, Jinlong, Wu, J., Yuan, J., & Zhou, P. (2004). Enhancing community participation: participatory forestry management in China. Plummer, J. & J. Taylor (Eds.), Community Participation in China: Issues and Processes for Capacity Building, 93–138.
- Liu, Jinlong. (2007). Contextualizing forestry discourses and normative framework towards sustainable forest management on contemporary China. International Forestry Review, 9(2), 653–660.
- Moon, K. H., & Park, D. K. (2004). The role and activities of NGOs in reforestation in the northeast Asian region. Forest Ecology and Management, 201(1), 75–81.
- Noronha, R. (1981). Why is it so difficult to grow fuelwood. Unasylva, 33(131), 4–12.
- Park, M. S. (2009). Media discourse in forest communication: the issue of forest conservation in the Korean and global media. Cuvillier.
- Park, M. S., & Lee, H. (2014). Forest policy and law for sustainability within the Korean Peninsula. Sustainability, 6(8), 5162–5186.
- Park, M. S., & Lee, H. (2016). Legal opportunities for public participation in forest management in the Republic of Korea. Sustainability, 8(4), 369.
- Park, M. S., & Youn, Y.-C. (2013). Development of urban forest policy-making toward governance in the Republic of Korea. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 12(3), 273–281.
- Park, M., & Youn, Y. (2013). Policy integration for reforestation in the Republic of Korea (Vol. 2123, p. 8689). Presented at the Proceeding of the International Symposium on Transition to Sustainable Forest Management and Rehabilitation: The Enabling Environment and Roadmap, Beijing, China.
- Piao, S., Fang, J., Ciais, P., Peylin, P., Huang, Y., Sitch, S., & Wang, T. (2009). The carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems in China. Nature, 458(7241), 1009.
- Shi, L., Zhao, S., Tang, Z., & Fang, J. (2011). The changes in China’s forests: An analysis using the forest identity. PLoS One, 6(6), e20778.
- Xiaoping, L. (1998). Forest Policy in China: the Past, Present and Future (pp. 134–147). Presented at the IGES International Workshop on Forest Conservation Strategies for the Asia and Pacific Region 21 23 July, 1998, Hayama, Kanagawa, Japan: Institute for Global Environmental Strategies.
- Xu, J., & Ribot, J. C. (2004). Decentralisation and accountability in forest management: a case from Yunnan, Southwest China. The European Journal of Development Research, 16(1), 153–173.
- Zhang, Y. (2001). Institutions in forest management: special reference to China. In World Forests, Markets and Policies (pp. 353–364). Springer.
Cite this Article:
International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.