Winged Accrescent Sepals and their Taxonomic Significance within the Chenopodiaceae: A Review

Winged Accrescent Sepals and their Taxonomic Significance within the Chenopodiaceae: A Review

Loading document ...
Loading page ...


Author(s): Gamal E.B. El Ghazali

Download Full PDF Read Complete Article

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1650 156 528 1-6 Volume 7 - May 2018


The present study aims to review the presence of winged accrescent sepals in various plant families with emphasis to the Subfamilies, Tribes and genera of the Chenopodiaceae and their significance in classification. Winged accrescent sepals were found to be sporadically scattered in 24 dicotyledonous and two monocotyledonous, one Gymnosperm and one Bryophyte families. In the Chenopodiaceae, winged accrescent sepals are present in three Subfamilies, five Tribes and 26 genera. The present review showed that these modified sepals although are unique morphological features in certain genera, Tribes and Subfamilies in the family Chenopodiaceae, they are also encountered in unrelated families and are not supported by molecular characteristics. Within the Chenopodiaceae, both the genera Sarcobatus and Dysphania, possess winged accrescent sepals, but molecular characteristics support the transfer of the genus Sarcobatus to a separate family, and confirmed the position of Dysphania within the family Chenopodiaceae. In addition, based on molecular characteristics, Subfamily Polycnemoideae which doesn't possess winged accrescent sepals, shared similarity with the Chenopodiaceae.


Modifications of Sepals, Sarcobatus, Dysphania, Polycnemoideae, Molecular Characteristics


  1. Abrams, L. and Ferris, R.S. (1944). An illustrated flora of the Pacific States: Washinton, Oregon and California, vol. 2. Stanford University Press, Stanford. flora02abra.
  2. Allen, P. (1930). Die systematische Stellung und Gliederung der R. Brownschen Gattung Dysphania. Botanische Jahrbucher fur Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie, 63: 483-492.
  3. Amaral, M.C.E. and Brittrich, V. (2014). Ochnaceae. In: K. Kubitzki (ed.), The families and genera of vascular plants, vol. XI: Flowering plants- Eudicots, Malpighiales. Springler, Heidelberg.
  4. Anwar Maun, M. (2009). The biology of the coastal sand dunes. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  5. Bayer, C. and Dorr, L.J. (1999). A synopsis of the neotropical genus Pentaplaris, with remarks on its systematic position within core Malvales. Brittonia, 51(2): 134-148.
  6., ISSN 0007-196x.
  7. Behnke, H.D. (1997). Sarcobataceae- a new family of Caryophyllales. Taxon, 46: 495-507.
  8. Beidleman, L.H. and Kozloff, E.N. (2014). Plants of the San Francisco Bay Region: Mendocino to Monterey. University of California Press Ltd., London.
  9. Bhatt, A., Phartyl, S. and Nicholas, A. (2017). Ecological role of distinct fruit-wing perianth color in synchronization of seed germination in Haloxylon salicornicum. Plant Species Biology, 32 (2): 121-133.
  11. Bosanquet, S. (2010). Jungermannia sphaerocarpa. In: Atherton, I., Bosanquet, S. & Lawley, M. (eds.), Mosses and Liverworts of Britain and Ireland, a field guide. British Bryological Society.
  12. Bottega, S. and Corsi, G. (2000). Structure, secretion and possible functions of calyx glandular hairs of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Labiatae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 132: 325-335.
  14. Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt, vol. one (Azollaceae- Oxalidaceae). Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo, Egypt.
  16. Brown, R. (1810). Prodromus florae Novae Hollandiae et Insulae Van- Diemen. Richard Taylor, London.
  17. Cabrera, J.F., Jacobs, S.W.L. and Kadereit, G. (2009). Phylogeny of the Australian Camphorosmeae (Chenopodiaceae) and the taxonomic significance of the fruiting perianth. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 170(4): 505-521.
  18. Chinnock, R.J. (2007). Eremophila and allied genera: a Monograph of the plant family Myoporaceae. Rosenberg Publishing Ltd., New South Wales.
  19. Chu, G., Wang, M. and Zhang, S. (2014). Factors influencing seed germination of medicinal plant Anabasis aphylla L. in salt desert of Xinjiang, China. International Journal of Plant Research, 27(1): 123-129.
  20. Clement, J.S. and Mabry, T.J. (1996). Pigment evolution in the Caryophyllales: a systematic overview. Botanica Acta, 109:360-367.
  22. Cronquist, A. (1981). An integrated system of classification of flowering plants. Columbia University Press, New York.
  23. Cullen, J. (2001). Handbook of North European Garden plants: with keys to families and genera. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  24. Da-Costa-Rocha, I, Bonnlaender, B., Sievers, H., Pischel, I. and Heinrich, M. (2014). Hibiscus sabdariffa L. – A phytochemical and pharmacological review. Food Chemistry, 165: 424-443.
  25. Davis, C.C., Anderson, W.R. and Donoghue, M.J. (2001). Phylogeny of Malpighiaceae: evidence from chloroplast NDHF and TRNL- F nucleotide sequences. America Journal of Botany, 88(10): 1830-1846.
  26. De Oliveira, A.L. R., and Bove, C.P. (2015). Eriocaulon L. from Brazil: An Annotated checklist and taxonomic novelties. Acta Botanica Brasilica, 29(2): 175-189.
  28. Downie, S.R., Ratz-Downie, D.S. and Cho, K.J. (1977). Retationships in the Caryophyllaceae as suggested by phylogenetic analysis of partial chloroplast DNA ORF 2280 homolog sequence. American Journal of Botany, 84: 253-273.
  29. Eckhardt, T. (1967). Vergleich von Dysphania mit Chenopodium und mit Illecebraceae. Bauhinia, 3: 327-344.
  30. El-Keblawy, A.A., Bhatt, A. and Gairola, S. (2014). Perianth colour affects germination behaviour in wind-pollinated Salsola rubescens in Arabian deserts. Botany, 92: 69-75.
  32. Endress, P.K. (2001). Origins of flower morphology. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 291: 105-115.
  33. Freitag, H., Hedge, I.C., Jafri, S.M.H., Kothe-Heinrich, Omer, S. and Uotila, P. (2001). Chenopodiaceae. In: S.I. Ali & M. Qaiser (eds.), Flora of Pakistan, 204: 178-183. Missouri Botancal Garden Press.
  34. Guitian, J. and Larrinaga, A.R. (2014). The role of post-floral persistent perianth in Helleborus viridis subsp. occidentalis (Ranunculaceae). Nordic Journal of Botany, 32: 852-857.
  35. Guo, J. (2015). Comparative micromorphology and anatomy of crested sepals in Iris (Iridaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences, 176(7): 627-642.
  36. Guo, H., Zhang, C., Zhang, L. and Yu, S.X. (2016). Impatiens guiqingensis (Balsaminaceae), a new species from Gansu, China. Phytotaxa 247(3):229-233.
  37. Heenan, P.B. (2014). Hypericaceae. In: Breitwieser, I., Brownsey, P.J., Heenan, P.B. & Wilton, A.D. (eds.), Flora of New Zealand – Seed Plants. Fascicle 1. Manaaki Whenua Press, Lincoln.
  38. Herrera, C.M. (2005). Post-floral perianth functionality: contribution of persistent sepals to seed development in Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae). American Journal of Botany 92(9): 1486-1491. https://doi.1D.3732/ajb.92.9.1485.
  39. Hils, M.H., Thieret, J.W. and Morefield, J.D. (2003). Sarcobatus Nees. In: S.L. Welsh, C.W. Crompton & S.E. Clements (eds.), Flora of North America. 4: 387-389, Oxford University Press.
  40. Hooker, J,D. (1880). Chenopodiaceae. In: Benthan, G. & Hooker, J.D. (eds.), Genera Plantarum, Vol 3. Reeve & Co., London.
  41. Hu, J.Y. and Saedler, H. (2007). Evolution of the inflated calyx syndrome in Solanaceae. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 24(11): 2443-53.
  42. Hutchinson, J. (1959). The families of flowering plants. Oxford University Press.
  43. Hyde, M.A., Wurstem, B.T., Ballings, P. and Palgrave, C. (2017). Flora of Zimbabwe: species Information: Nicandra physalodes.
  44. Jabeen, N., Kozgar, M.I., Dar, G.H., Shawl, A.S. and Khan, S. (2013). Distribution and taxonomy of genus Aconitum in Kashmir: Potent medicinal resources of Himalayan Valley. Chiang Mai Journal of Science, 40 (2): 173-186.
  45. Jayaweera, D.M.A. (1963). The Rubiaceous genus Mussaenda: The morphology of the Asiatic species. Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, 44(1): 111-126.
  46. Jafri, S.M.H. and Abdul Ghafoor (1974). Verbenaceae. In: E. Nair & S.I. Ali Eds.), Flora of West Pakistan, 77: 1-40. University of Karachi, Karachi.
  47. Jurado, E., Westoby, M. and Nelson, D. (1991). Diaspore weight, dispersal, growth form and perenniality of Central Australian Plants. Journal of Ecology, 79(3): 811-828.
  48. Kadereit, G., Borsch, T., Weising, K. and Freitag, H. (2003). Phylogeny of Amaranthacaea and Chenopodiaceae and the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. International Journal of Plant Science, 164(6): 959-986.
  50. Kubitzki, K. (1990). Welwitchiaceae. In : Kramer, & Green, P.S. (eds.), The Families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 1, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Springer- Verlg Berlin Heidelberg.
  51. Kuhn, U., Bittrich, V., Carolin, R., Freitag, H., Hedge, I.C., Uotila, P. and Wilson, P.G. (1993). Chenopodiaceae. In: Kubitzki, K., Rohwer, J.G. & Bittrich, V. (eds.), The families and genera of vascular plants 2. Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg.
  52. Landrein, S. (2010). Diabelia: a new genus of tribe Linnaeeae subtribe Linnaeinae (Caprifoliaceae). Phytotaxa, 3: 34-38.
  53. Larson, G.E. (1993). Aquatic and wetland vascular plants of the Northern Great plains. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. General Technical Report, RM-238, Fort Collins, Colorado.
  54. Les, D.H. (2017). Aquatic dicotyledons of North America: Ecology, life history and systematics. CRC Press.
  55. Li, X., Li, J. and Ashton, P.S. (2000). Dipterocarpaceae. In: Wu, Z., Peter, H.R., Hong, D. (eds.). Flora of China, 13: 48-54, Missouri Botanical Garden., St. Louis
  56. Linder, H.P. and Hardy, C.R. (2010). A generic classification of the Restioneae (Restionaceae), Southern Africa. Bothalia 40 (1): 1-35.
  57. Ma, Y., Zhang, J., Li, X., Zhang, S. and Lan, H. (2016). Effect of environmental stress on seed germination and seedling growth of Salsola ferganica (Chenopodiaceae). Acta Ecologica Sinica, 36(6): 456-463.
  58. Meyer, C.A. (1829). Chenopodiaceae. In: Ledebour, C.F. (ed.). Flora Altaica, Berlin, Reimer.
  59. Manchester, S.R. and Donoghue, M.J. (1995).Winged fruits of Linnaeeae (Caprifoliaceae) in the Tertiary of Western North America: Diplodipelta Gen. Nov. International Journal of Plant Science, 156(5): 709-722.
  60. Mabberley, D.J. (1997). The plant-book, a portable dictionary of the vascular plants. Cambridge University Press. https://cambridge/org/core/books/
  61. Maury-Lechon, G. and Curtet, L. (1998). Biogeography and evolutionary systematics of Dipterocarpaceae. In: S. Appanah and J. M. Turnbull (eds.), A review of Dipterocarps: taxonomy, ecology and silviculture. Centre for International Forestry Research, Malaysia.
  62. Mohlenbrock, R.H. and Thomson, P.M. (2009). The illustrated flora of Illinois, Flowering pants: smart weeds to Hazel nuts. South Illinois University Press. https://nhbs/com/series.
  63. Naidu, V.S.G.R. (2012). Hand Book on weed identification. Directorate of Weed Science Research, Jabalpur, India.
  64. Panda, S. and Reveal, J.L. (2012). A step- two lecto-typification and epitypification of Pentapterygium sikkimense W.W. Sm. (Ericaceae) with an amplified description. Phytoneuron, 8: 1-7.
  65. Pax, F.A. (1889). Dyshania. In: Engler, A. & Prantl, K. (eds.). Die naturlichen Pflanzen familien, 3(1b):92. Verlag von Wilhelm Englemann, Leipzig.
  66. Pax, F.A. and Hoffman, K. (1934). Dysphaniaceae. In:
  67. In: Engler, A. & Harms, H. (eds.). Die naturlichen Pflanzen familien, 16c:272-274. Duncker & Hunbolt, Berlin.
  68. Pell, S.K., Mitchell, J.D., Miller, A.J. and Lobova, T.A. (2011). Anacardiaceae. In: K. Kubitzki (ed.), The families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 10: Flowering plants, Eudicots. Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg.
  69. Phillips, S. (1997). Eriocaulaceae, In: R.M. Polhill (ed.), Flora of Tropical East Africa. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.
  70. Quimaraes, E.F., Dalvi, V.C., and Azevedo, A.A. (2013). Morphoanatomy of Schultesia pachypylla (Gentianaceae): a discordant pattern in the genus. Botany, 91(12): 830-839.
  71. Radfort, A., Ahles, H.E. and Bell, C.R. (1964). Manual of the vascular Flora of the Carolinas. The University of North Carolina Press.
  72. Saldana, A., Fuentes, N. and Pfanzelt, S. (2009). Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decr. (Polygonaceae: a new record for the alien Flora of Chile. Gayana Botanica 66(2): 283-285.
  73. Saxena, N.P. (2010). Objective Botany. Krishna Prakasnan Media, Ltd, India.
  74. Shahina, P.M. and Nampy, S. (2016). A taxonomic revision of Exacum L. (Gentianaceae- Exaceae) in South India. International Journal of Advanced Research, 4(3): 1653-1683.
  75. Smith, T.E. (2008). Current status of yellow false Mallow (Malvastrum hispidium) in Mossouri. Missouriensis, 28/29: 5- 9.
  76. Snijman, D.A. and Manning, J.C. (2013). Chenopodiaceae. Chenolea convallis, a new species from western Cape Province, South Africa. Bothalia (African Biodiversity and Conservation), 43(1): 80-84.
  77. Sperling, C.R. and Bittrich, V. (1993). Basellaceae. In: Kubitzki, K., J.G. Rohwer & V. Bittrich (eds.). Flowering plants, Dicotyledons. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg.
  79. Staples, G.W. and Austin, D.F. (2009). Revision of Neotropical Calycobolus and Porana (Convolvulaceae). Edinbrugh Journal of Botany, 66(1): 133-153.
  80. Struwig, M., Klaassen, E.S. and Kwembey, E.G. (2015). Nyctaginaceae: a taxonomic treatment for the Flora of Namibia. Phytotaxa, 238(2): 101-135.
  81. Sukhorukov, A.P. and Konstantinova (2012). Fruit anatomy of Anthochlams (Chenopodiaceae/ Amaranthaceae). In: Timonin, A.K., Sukhorukov, A.P., Harper, G.H. and Nilova, M.V. (eds.), Caryophyllaceae: New insights into the phylogeny, systematics and morphological evolution of the Order. Lomonosov State University, Moscow, 24-27 Sept.
  82. Suzuki, S. and Ashton, P.S. (1996). Sepal and nut size ratio of fruits of Asian Dipterocarpaceae and its implications for dispersal. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 12(6): 853-870.
  84. Takhtajan, A. (1969). Flowering plants. Origin and dispersal. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburge.
  85. Taylor, E. (2016). Pollination ecology of Sabatia campestris Nutt (Gentianaceae). Oklahoma Native Plant Record, 16: 4-9.
  86. Thomas, D.W. and Gereau, R. (1993). Ancistrocladus korupensis (Ancistrocladaceae): A new species of Liana from Cameroon. Novon: A Journal for Botanical Nomenclature, 3(4): 494.
  87. Thorne, R.F. (1992). An updated phylogenetic classification of the flowering plants. Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, 13(2):365-389.
  88. Watt, G. (2014). A dictionary of the economic products of India, volume 1: Abaca to Buxus. Cambridge University Press.
  89. Weigend, M., Selvi, F. Thomas, D.C. and Hilget, H.H. (2016). Boraginaceae. In: Kadereit, J.W. & Bittrich (eds.). The families and genera of vascular Plants, vol. 14, Flowering Plants. Cham: Springer- International Publishing.
  90. Welsh, S.L., Crompton, C.W. and Clemants, S.E. (2003). Chenopodiaceae. In: Editorial Committee (ed.), Flora of North America, 4: 258-404.
  91. Wilson, P.G. (1984). Chenopodiaceae. In: A.S. George (ed.) Flora of Australia 4, Phytolaccaceae to Chenopodiaceae. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.
  92. William, T.T. and Ford-Lloyd, B.V. (1974). The systematics of the Chenopodiaceae. Taxon, 23(2-3): 353-354.
  93. Wilmot-Dear, C.M. and Friis, I. (2012). Pouzolzia floresiana (Urticaceae), a new species from Flores, Nusa Tenggara Timur (Lesser Suda Islands), Indonesia. Edinburgh Journal of Botany, 69 (2): 293-299.
  94. Ulbrich, E. (1934). Chenopodiaceae. In: Engler, A. & Prantl, K. (eds.). Die natu rlichen Planzenfamilien, vol. 16 c. Engelmann, Leipzig.
  95. Yu, J., Hu, X., Wang, Y., Yang, L., and Zhang, B. (2009). Effects of winged perianth and its water extracts of Zygophyllum xanthoxylum on seed germination. Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica, 29(4): 795-799.
  96. Zavala-Gallo, L., Denham, S.S. and Pozner, P. (2011). Two new species of Boopis (Calyceraceae) from Argentina. Brittonia, 3(1): 113-117.
  97. Zhu, G., Mosyakin, S.L. and Clements, S.E. (2003). Chenopodiaceae. In: W. Zhengyi & P.H. Raven (eds.), Flora of China, 5: 351-414. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. www.eFloras.or/florataxon.

Cite this Article:

International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.

Search Articles

Issue June 2023

Volume 12, June 2023

Table of Contents

World-wide Delivery is FREE

Share this Issue with Friends:

Submit your Paper