Nigeria is a major oil and gas producer and exporter. One of the modes of transportation of these products both locally and internationally is via pipelines transmissions. The increase in demand for settlement spaces has caused more and more persons to seek refuge along pipeline right of ways. Available statistics has shown that pipeline right of ways has remained a danger zone because the physical environment of an impacted area leaves evidences of degradation on the soil, vegetation and loss of lives and property. This research examined the risk and Vulnerability of settlements along the transmission pipelines of Ogun and Lagos States Nigeria. The method of study includes the primary and secondary sources of data collections. The statistical tool used is the factor analysis and vulnerability assessment. Vulnerability assessment considered the loss of lives from explosions or fire breaks resulting from the vandalization of pipelines as well as the vulnerability of the facility or settlements to these hazards. The factor analysis showed 78.1 percent total variance of seven principal factors with eigen values greater or equal to unity. Hypothesis tested accepted alternate, while row scores showed (-19.273) for pair one, (-52.134) for pair two and (-41.273) for pair three, all exceeds the value of‘t’ indicated in the table. Vulnerability assessment also shows that the attractiveness of the facility as a target by pipeline vandals makes the settlements very vulnerable and the level of deterrence or defense provided by government or pipeline owners were not adequate to counter measures adopted by the vandals. The research recommends aggressive public enlightenment on dangers settlement along pipelines are exposed to and the weaknesses of enforcement of relevant laws by government. The study advocates the implementation of the laws on allowable minimum distance between transmission pipelines and facilities or structures such as buildings etc.
Risk, Vulnerability, Settlements, Transmission, Pipelines
- Alcock and Mitchel (1998) Use of RBCA for Historically Contaminated site in the
- Niger Delta. Workshop paper delivered in Rivers State sponsored by SPDC.
- Asante- Duah, K. (2008) Assessment in Environmental Management. J Wiley and sons. U.S.A 205pp.
- Balogun, O. (2006): Dissertation Submitted to the Department of Urban and Regional Planning of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
- Clark , B ( 2015) Fire Effects Guide: National wild life coordinating Group.USA -EMS Group.
- Cohrssen , J. J and Covello, V.T. (2009) Risk Analysis: A guide to principles and
- methods for analyzing health and environmental risks. National Technical
- Information Services US department of Commerce. Springfield Press.
- Cutter, S.L. ( 2003) Living with Risk: The geography of Technological Hazards. Cambridge University Press. U.K. 455pp.
- Esinaulo. M, L, (2004) Selected case studies on risk assessment and management of oil and gas pipeline outbreaks in the Niger delta region of Nigeria. Dissertation Submitted for the award of PhD to the Institute of Geosciences and Space Technology (RSUST) Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.
- Heath, R (2008) Crisis Management for Managers and Executives. Financial Times and Pitman Publication. London.
- Lawrence W.W.(1996) Acceptable Risk. Science and the Determination of Safety William Kaufman Press.
- Mac Neil (2010) Risk Assessment . Transport, Storage and use of solvents and other Flammables liquids.
- Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation; Pipeline and Products Marketing Company Bulletin, (2005); Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation; Department of Petroleum Resource Bulletin, PPMC (2013).
- Onwurah, I. N. (2009) A Perspective of Industrial and Environmental Biotechnology. Snaap Press Ltd.
- Schneider, S.(2001) Renewable Energy Prosoects, Comparative Risk Assessment of Energy Systems.
- Stigliani W.M. (2015) Risk Assessment and Decision support Tools.
- Workshop paper delivered on Environmental Pollution and Applicability of Remediation Tecnologies in Africa organized by SPDC.
- Slovic, P (2014) Beyond Numbers: A Broader Perspective on Risk .
- Edited by Mayor and Hollander. Stannic Press, Germany.
- Smith, J.W.(2010) Environmental Hazards: Assessing Risk and Reducing Disaster. 2nd Edition Routledge.233pp.
- Udogwu C.A. (2016) The Benefits of a Good Risk Control Programmes in the Petroleum industry and the Nigerian Environment. A workshop at PTI Efurrum Warri, Nigeria.
- USEPA(1991) Environmental Risk . Guide to Analysising and Reducing Risk.
- Rusheel No. 905/9-91-017.
- Wharton, F (2002) Risk Management: Basic Concepts and General Principles John Wiley Press, USA, 255pp.
- Williams, C. A. (2005) Risk Management and Insurance.
- 7th Edition McGraw Hill, Cambridge England.303pp.
International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.