Author(s): Musa Ibrahim Waziri, Lawal Sa'idu, Aliyu Mohammed Wakawa, Mohammed Ahmed Talba, Hayatu Bako Aliyu, Paul Ayuba Abdu
Most female birds produce at least an egg at some point in their life time with or without a mate. A fertile egg is however produced when a bird is mated. The process of egg formation is the result of anatomical, physiological and nutritional factors influenced largely by genetic, disease and extrinsic environmental stimulus. Oviposition involving repeated or larger clutch sizes may functionally exhaust the reproductive tract thereby posing risks of metabolic and physiological drain on the bird. The birds' reproductive anatomy is such that it does not prevent eggs from undergoing reverse peristalsis. A ten-year study (2001-2010) of obstetric problems of the chicken revealed prevalence of (9.8%) as reproductive abnormalities, and incidences of oophoritis (39%), egg-yolk peritonitis (22%), salphingitis (19%), egg bound/binding (3%), atrophied (7%), and ruptured (2.0%) oviduct, cystic ovary and oviduct (1.7%), neoplasms (3%), various forms of prolapses (2%), ectopic egg (1%) and ochitis (0.3%). Postmortem clinic records showed that most of the obstetrical cases involved ovary and oviduct and were seen in exotic breeds of chickens. This study highlights prevalence, possible causes and remedies to some obstetric problems of the domestic fowl. Required attention must be given to these problems for optimum egg productivity.
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