Author(s): Thomas Kuete, Gabriel Lando, Tazoacha Asonganyi, Flobert Njiokou, Albert Same-Ekobo
Schistosomiasis is endemic in Cameroon with three Schistosoma species infecting human in many areas. Data from many countries endemic for S.mansoni, S.haematobium and S.japonicum reported an age-dependent antibody response profile using homologous adult schistosome antigen extract. Less is known about the antibody profile in schistosomiasis endemic areas in Cameroon. This study aimed to assess the IgM and IgG antibody profiles using adult S.guineensis extract in immune sera from Schistosoma egg positive Cameroonians from intestinal or urinary schistosomiasis endemic areas. Whole adult S.guineensis antigen was extracted from a Cameroonian S.guineensis strain maintained in laboratory. The antigen extract was a supernatant obtained after centrifugation of grinded freeze-thawed 45 days old worms in enzyme inhibitor solution. Sera were obtained from residents of schistosomiasis endemic areas with microscopically confirmed monospecific infection by S.guineensis, S.mansoni or S.haematobium and Schistosoma free control sera from non endemic area. IgM and IgG antibody titers detection was proceeded by indirect ELISA using HRP-conjugated secondary IgM or IgG antibody. Optical densities (OD) were recorded with a spectrophotometer plate reader at 495 nm and mean OD were statistically analyzed according to age using Student t-test and egg load using ANOVA test. A total of 189 sera were tested. Sera from S.haematobium, S.mansoni and S.guineensis infections represented 68, 73 and 46 respectively. Of S.mansoni infection sera, 31 were collected at Lagdo and 42 in S.mansoni monospecific focus. Age had no significant influence on mean IgM and IgG antibodies OD although mean IgM and IgG changed with age. Mean IgG antibody increased with age in the three schistosomiasis sera. According to age, mean IgM decreased in S.guineensis infections sera, decreased from young to participants aged 15 to 24 years then increased in older in schistosomiasis mansoni sera. In schistosomiasis haematobium sera, mean IgM increased from young to participants aged 15 to 24 years then decreased in older. Egg load influenced significantly mean IgM and IgG titers. Mean IgM OD decreased with egg load in each of the schistosomiasis whereas mean IgG decreased in intestinal schistosomiasis sera. Mean IgM and IgG antibody titers detected with adult S.guineensis extract using ELISA technique in either intestinal or urinary schistosomiasis endemic areas in Cameroon were not age dependent but egg load depended on egg load in urine and stool samples. Diagnostic performance of the adult S.guineensis extract in antibody detection has been tested.
Antibody, Optical Densities, Sera, ELISA, S.Mansoni, S.Guineensis, S.Haematobium, Infections, Cameroon
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