We isolated 100 morphologically-distinct halotolerant/halophilic yeasts from five estuarine sediments in Qua Iboe estuary, South-South Nigeria. A three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the distribution was significant at p < 0.01; adjusted r2 = 0.851 suggesting that 85.1% of the variations in the number of halotolerant/halophilic yeast could be explained by the model. Sample, media and salt level main effects were all significant at p < 0.01, r2 = 0.732; 0.403 and 0.463 respectively. Only 17% of the yeasts demonstrated biosurfactant production potential by the oil displacement assay. Positive isolates were identified by macro/micro-morphological and physiological characterizations as species of Torulaspora, Pichia, Saccharomyces, Candida, Debaryomyces, Kluyveromyces, Schizosaccharomyces, Rhodotorula and Hortaea but the dominant halotolerant genus was Candida. Douglas creek sample harbored the highest number of halotolerant biosurfactant-producing yeasts probably by reason of its better proximity to Qua Iboe terminal where petroleum activity is high. Biosurfactants produced by all 17 yeasts could reduce surface tension to < 40 mN/m suggesting that halotolerant/halophilic yeasts in stressed environments secrete only effective surface-active compounds or not at all. Significant but moderate correlations existed between all correlate pairs involving oil displacement activity, surface tension, critical micelle concentration and emulsification activity of biosurfactants. The Pillai’s Trace test of a one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) involving surface tension reduction, oil displacement activity and emulsification activity was significant at F (48,102) = 3119.004, p < 0.005, partial ƞ2 = 0.999.
Halotolerance/Halophily yeasts, Biosurfactant, Three-way ANOVA, Correlation analyses, One-way MANOVA
- Nanjwade, B.K., Chandrashekhara, S., Goudanavar, P.S., Shamarez, A.M. and Manvi, F.V. (2010) Production of antibiotics from soil-isolated actinomycetes and evaluation of their antimicrobial activities. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 9, 373-377 https://doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v9i4.58933
- Singh, R., Kumar, M., Mittal, A. and Mehta, P.K. (2017) Microbial metabolites in nutrition, healthcare and agriculture. 3 Biotech, 7, 15 https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-016-0586-4
- Moosavi-Nasab, M., Ansari, S. and Montazer, Z. (2007) Fermentative production of lysine by Corynebacterium glutamicum from different carbon sources. Iran Agricultural Research, 26, 99-106
- Naraian, R. and Kumari, S. (2017). Microbial production of organic acids, In: Gupta, V.K., Treichel, H., Shapaval, V (O), Antonio de Oliveira, L. and Tuohy, M.G. (Eds.) Microbial functional foods and nutraceuticals. John Wiley and Sons Inc.
- Fernandez-Cabezon, L., Galan, B. and Garcia, J.L. (2018) New insights on steroid biotechnology. Frontiers in Microbiology, 8, Article 968 https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.00958
- Alia, K.B., Rasul, I., Azeem, F., Hussain, S., Siddique, M.H., Muzammil, S., Riaz, M., Amna Bari, A., Liaqat, S. and Nadeem, H. (2019) Microbial production of ethanol. Microbial Research Foundations, 46, 307-334.
- Ritala, A., Häkkinen, S.T., Toivari, M. and Wiebe, M.G. (2017) Single cell protein-state-of-the-art, industrial landscape and patents 2001-2016. Frontiers in Microbiology, 8, Article 2009. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.02009
- Josefsberg, J.O. and Buckland, B. (2012) Vaccine process technology. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 109, 1443-1460 https://doi.org/10.1002/bit.24493
- Chang, I., Jeon, M., and Gye-Chun Cho, G-C. (2015). Application of microbial biopolymers as an alternative construction binder for earth buildings in underdeveloped countries. International Journal of Polymer Science, 2015, Article ID 326745, 9 pages. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/326745
- Chattopadhyay, P., Banerjee, G. and Mukherjee, S. (2017) Recent trends of modern bacterial insecticides for pest control practice in integrated crop management system. 3 Biotech, 7, 60
- Ekpenyong, M., Asitok, A., Odey, A. and Antai, S. (2016) Production and activity kinetics of gelatinase by Serratia sp.SLO3. Nigerian Journal of Biopesticides, 1: 70-82
- Edet, P.E., Asitok, A.D., Ekpenyong, M.G. and Antai, S.P. (2018) Evaluation of the effects of nutritional and environmental parameters on production of extracellular caseinolytic protease by Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila strain BPE4. International Journal of Sciences, 7, 70-81 https://doi.org/10.18483/ijSci.1548
- Ekpenyong, M.G., Antai, S.P., Asitok, A.D. and Ekpo, B.O. (2016) Plackett-Burman design and response surface optimization of medium trace nutrients for glycolipopeptide biosurfactant production. Iranian Biomedical Journal, 21, 249-260.
- Accorsini, F.R., Mutton, M.J.R., Lemos, E.G.M. and Benincasa, M. (2012) Biosurfactants production using soybean oil and glycerol as low cost substrate. Brazillian Journal of Microbiology, 2012, 116-125.
- Bourdichon, F., Casaregola, S., Farrokh, C., Frisvad, J.C., Gerds, M.L., Hammes, W.P., Harnett, J., Huys, G., Laulund, S., Ouwehand, A., Powel, I.B., Prajapati, J.B., Seto, Y., Schure, E.T., Boven, A.V., Vankerckhoven, V., Zgoda, A., Tuijtelaars, S. and Hansen, E.B. (2012) Food fermentations: Microorganisms with technological beneficial use. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 154, 87-97
- Kim, H., Yoo, S.J. and Kang, H.A. (2015) Yeast synthetic biology for the production of recombinant therapeutic proteins. FEMS Yeast Research, 15, 1-16 https://doi.org/10.1111/1567-1364.12195
- Santos, D.K.F., Rufino, R.D., Luna, J.M. Valdemir A. Santos, V.A. and Sarubbo, L.A. (2016) Biosurfactants: multifunctional biomolecules of the 21st Century. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 17, 401-431 https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17030401
- Mendes de Souza, P., Andrade Silva, N.R., Souza, D.G., Lima de Silva, T.A., Marta C. Freitas-Silva, M.C., Andrade, R.F.S., Silva, G.K.B., Albuquerque, C.D.C., Messias, A.S. and Campos-Takaki, G.M. (2018) Production of a biosurfactant by Cunninghamella echinulata using renewable substrates and its applications in enhanced oil spill recovery. Colloids and Interfaces, 2, 63 https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids2040063
- Varjani, S.J. and Upasani, V.N. (2017) Critical review on biosurfactant analysis, purification and characterization using rhamnolipid as a model biosurfactant. Bioresource Technology, 232, 389-397
- Udoh, T. and Vinogradov, J. (2019). Experimental investigations of behaviour of biosurfactants in brine solutions relevant to hydrocarbon reservoirs. Colloids and Interfaces, 3, 24
- Essien, J.P., Benson, N.U., Antai, S.P. (2008) Seasonal dynamics of physicochemical properties and heavy metal burdens in mangrove sediments and surface water of the brackish Qua Iboe Estuary, Nigeria. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, 90, 259-273 https://doi.org/10.1080/02772240701550497
- Itam, A.E., Digha, O.N., Effiong, M.P. and Ukot, A.A. (2016) Sources contribution to sediment along the Qua Iboe River/Estuary bank, South-East Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Applied Geology and Geophysics, 4, 1-6 https://doi.org/10.9790/0990-0405010106
- Moses, E.A., Etuk, B.A. and Udosen, E.D. (2015) Spatial and seasonal variations in the contamination indices of trace metals in sediments from Qua Iboe River Estuary, South-South, Nigeria. International Journal of science and Technology, 4, 506-516 https://doi.org/10.5455/jeos.20150714122504
- Gunde-Cimerman, N. and Zalar, P. (2014) Extremely halotolerant and halophilic fungi inhabit brine in solar salterns around the globe. Food Technology and Biotechnology, 52, 170-179.
- Ekpenyong, M.G., Antai, S.P. and Essien, J.P. (2007) Quantitative and qualitative assessment of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria and fungi in Qua Iboe Estuary, Nigeria. Research Journal of Microbiology, 2, 415-425 https://doi.org/10.3923/jm.2007.415.425
- Ekpenyong, M.G., Antai, S.P. and Asitok, A.D. (2016) A Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain IKW1 produces an unusual polymeric surface-active compound in waste frying oil-minimal medium. International Journal of Sciences, 5, 108-123. https://doi.org/10.18483/ijSci.1064
- Ekpenyong, M., Antai, S., Asitok, A. and Ekpo, B. (2017) Response surface modeling and optimization of major medium variables for glycolipopeptide production. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 10, 113-121 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcab.2017.02.015
- Morikawa, M., Daido, H., Takao, T., Murata, S., Shimonishi, Y. and Imanaka, T. (1993) A new lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Arthrobacter sp. Strain MIS38. Journal of Bacteriology, 175, 6459-6466.
- Rodrigues, L.R., Teixeira, J.A. and Oliveira, R. (2006) Low-cost fermentative medium for biosurfactant production by probiotic bacteria. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 32, 135-142.
- Barnett, J.A., Payne, R.W. and Yarrow, D. (2000). Yeasts: Characteristics and identification. 3rd edition. Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom, Pp. 1139
- Plemenitas, A., Lenassi, M., Konte, T., Kejzar, A., Zajc, J., Gostincar, C. and Gunde-Cimerman, N. (2014) Adaptation to high salt concentrations in halotolerant/halophilic fungi: a molecular perspective. Frontiers in Microbiology, 5, Article 199. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2014.00199
- Zalar, P., Sybren de Hoog, G., Schroers, H-J., Frank, J.M. and Gunde-Cimerman, N. (2005) Toxonomy and Phylogeny of the xerophilic genus Wallemia (Wallemiomycetes and Wallemiales, cl. et ord. nov.). Antonnie von Leeuwenhoek, 82, 311-328. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10482-004-6783-x
- Bodour, A.A., Drecs, K.P. and Maier, R.M. (2003). Distribution of biosurfactant-producing bacteria in undisturbed and contaminated arid southwestern soils. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69, 3280-3287 https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.69.6.3280-3287.2003
- Rubio-Ribeaux, D., Andrade, R.F.S., Sonia da Silva, G., Assuncao de Holanda, R., Pele, M.A., Nunes, P., Junior, J.C.V., Aparesida de Resende-Stoianoff, M. and Campos-Takaki, G.M. (2017) Promising biosurfactant produced by a new Candida tropicalis UCP 1613 strain using substrates from renewable-resources. African Journal of Microbial Research, 11, 981-991 https://doi.org/10.5897/AJMR2017.8486
- Thaniyavarn, J., Chianguthai, T., Sangvanich, P., Roongsawang, N., Washio, K., Morikawa, M. and Thaniyavarn, S. (2008) Production of sophorolipid biosurfactant by Pichia anomala. Biosciences, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 72, 2061-2068 https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb.80166
- Kawahara, H., Hirai, A., Minabe, T. and Obata, H. (2013) Stabilization of astaxanthin by a novel biosurfactant produced by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa KUGPP-1. Biocontrol Science, 18, 21-28.
- Sousa, T.G.C., Pinheiro, T.A., Camargo, H.A., Tambourgi, E.B., Sette, L.D., Cardoso, V.L., Coutinho-Filho, U. and Silveira, E. (2017) Production of biosurfactant from Rhodotorula mucilaginosa using pineapple residues. In: Proceedings of National bioprocess symposium and enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass symposium, 2017
- Lukondeh, T., Ashbolt, N.J. and Rogers, P.L. (2003) Evaluation of Kluyveromyces marxianus FII 510700 grown on a lactose-based medium as a source of a natural bioemulsifier. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 30, 715-720 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10295-003-0105-6
Cite this Article:
International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.