In this investigation, MAC (mental abacus calculation) trained and unchained (control) groups of elementary school children were measured with Raven Reasoning Intelligence Test and basic cognitive abilities; the tested scores were processed with transverse (across-sectional) comparisons between the two groups in the same time as well as longitudinal comparisons within the same groups in different times; and roles of MAC in developing children's intelligence were discussed. Our results showed: (1) The intelligence quotient (IQ) of the children in MAC group was significantly higher (P ﹤0.01) than that of the control group when the cross-sectional comparisons were performed, and (2) the cognitive abilities of children in MAC group were more significantly improved (P ﹤0.05) when the longitudinal comparisons were performed. Conclusion: MAC trainings can promote developments of children's IQ, basic cognitive abilities and intelligence. Children's brain function has a strong plasticity and huge space to develop.
Neuroscience, IQ, Brain, Function, Imaginary Thinking, Transverse, Across-Sectional, Longitudinal Comparison
- Tanaka S, Seki K, Hanakawa T, Harada M, Sugawara SK, Sadato N, Watanabe K, Honda M. Abacus in the brain: a longitudinal functional MRI study of a skilled abacus user with a right hemispheric lesion. Front Psychol. 2012; 3:315. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00315. eCollection 2012.
- Hatano G, Miyake Y, Bink M. Performance of expert abacus operators. Cognition 1977; 5 57–71. DOI： 10.1016/0010-0277(77)90016-6
- Hatano G, Amaiwa S, Shimizu K. Formation of a mental abacus for computation and its use as a memory device for digits: a developmental study. Dev. Psychol. 1987; 23: 832–838. DOI: 10.1037/0012-16126.96.36.1992
- Hatano G, Osawa K, Digit memory of grand experts in abacus derived mental calculation. Cognition. 1983; 15: 95–110. DOI： 10.1016/0010-0277(83)90035-5
- Hatta T. Hirose T, Ikeda K, Fukuhara H. Digit memory of soroban experts: evidence of utilization of mental imagery. Appl. Cogn. Psychol. 1989; 3: 23–33. DOI： 10.1002/acp.2350030104
- Liu X, Sun Y. An event-related potential investigation of spatial attention orientation in children trained with mental abacus calculation. NeuroReport. 2017; 28(1): 35 – 41. DOI: 10.1097/WNR.0000000000000705
- Yao Y, Du F, Wang C, Liu Y, Wen J, Chen F， Numerical processing efficiency improved in children using mental abacus: ERP evidence utilizing a numerical Stroop task. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 2015; 9: 245. DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00245
- Hishitani S, Imagery expert: how do expert abacus operators process imagery? Appl. Cogn. Psychol. 1990; 4: 33–46. DOI： 10.1002/acp.2350040104
- Li X, Zhang Y, Feng L, Meng Q. Early event-related potentials changes during simple mental calculation in Chinese older adults with mild cognitive impairment: A case-control study. Neuroscience letters. 2010; 475: 29-32. DOI： 10.1016/j.neulet.2010.03.038
- Li D, Design and development of the basic cognitive ability test, 2nd ed. 2005. (Chinese) DOI： 10.1038/sj.cr.7290097
- Ashcraft MH, Battaglia J. Cognitive arithmetic: Evidence for retrieval and decision processes in mental addition. Journal of Experimental Psychology Human Learning and Memory. 1978; 4: 527–538. DOI： 10.1037/0278-73188.8.131.527
International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.