Author(s): Iyi C. Emmanuel, Ozoko C. Daniel, Ezeh Christopher Chukwudi
Download Full PDF
Read Complete Article
Volume 8 - Jun 2019
This research was carried out to determine the quantity of uptake of trace elements by the leaf of plants growing around industrial and agricultural areas of Enugu State. A total of twenty-two (22) plant leaf samples which consist of 12 different species such as S. pyramidalis, Py. polystachyos, Se. sesban, C. odorata, P. foetida, H. suaveolens, T. platycarpa, C. mucunoids, C. digitalis, D. aegypticum, Sc. dulcis and L. oryza sativa were collected from dumpsites, industrial sites, wetlands, mining sites and sewage site, across the study area. The samples were analyzed for heavy metals using standard laboratory methods. Results obtained in the study area revealed that the plant leaf samples obtained from the study area contained the following mean values: Fe3+ (25.69 ± 21.04 mg/kg), Mn (11.03 ± 0.64 mg/kg), As (4.60 ± 1.56 mg/kg), Pb (3.38 ± 1.46 mg/kg), Zn (21.93 ± 11.02 mg/kg), Cd (0.79 ± 0.03 mg/kg), Cr (2.86 ± 4.84 mg/kg), Ni (0.53 ± 4.27 mg/kg) and Cu (12.74 ± 2.89 mg/kg). The mean concentrations of iron, arsenic, lead, cadmium and chromium were above the recommendable limits as stipulated by FAO/WHO for edible plants. Principal component analyses of the variables revealed strong relationship among the variables indicating same source of enrichment. This study is limited to plant leaves; hence, further research is recommended in the study area to evaluate the uptake of heavy metals by the roots and stems of the same plants.
Heavy Metals, Plants, Uptake, Enugu State, Principal Component Analysis
- Adriano, D.C., 1986. Elements in the Terrestrial Environment. Springer Verlag: New York, P. 145-60.
- Baker, A.J.M., 1981. Accumulators and excluders – Strategies in the response of plants to heavy metals, J. Plant Nutr., Vol.3, No. 1-4, P. 643-654.
- Benkhelil, J., 1982. Benue Trough and Benue Chain. Geological Magazine, Vol. 119, P. 155-168.
- Boularbah, A., Schwartz, C., Bitton, G., Aboudrar, W., Ouhammou, A. and Morel, J.L., 2006. Heavy metal contamination from mining sites in South Morocco: 2. Assessment of metal accumulation and toxicity in plants, Chemosphere, Vol. 63, P. 811-817.
- Bunzl, B., Trautmannsheimer, M., Schramel, P. and Reifenhauser, W., 2001. Availability of Arsenic, copper, Lead, Thallium and Zinc to various vegetables grown in slag-contaminated soils, J. Environ. Qual., Vol. 30, P. 934-939.
- Carrizales, L., Razo, I., Te ́llez-Herna ́ndez, J.I., Torres-Nerio, R., Torres, A., Batres, L.E., Cubillas, A.C. and Dı ́az-Barriga, F., 2006. Exposure to arsenic and lead of childrenliving near a copper-smelter in San Luis Potosi, Mexico: importance of soilcontamination for exposure of children. Environmental Research, Vol. 101, P. 1-10.
- Escarre, J., Lefebvre, C., Gruber, W., Leblanc, M., Lepart, L., Riviere, Y. and Delay, B., 2000. Zinc and cadmium hyperaccumulation by Thlaspi caerulescens from metalliferous and nonmetalliferous sites in the Mediterranean area: implications for phytoremediation, New Phytol., Vol. 145, P. 429-437.
- Ezeigbo, H.I and Ozoko, D.C., 1989. An Evaluation of the Water Resources of Nsukka and environs, Anambra State, Nigeria. Wat. Res. J. Nig. Asso. Hydrogeo., Vol. 2, P. 20-25.
- FAO/WHO, 1996. Proposed draft code of hygienic practice for the products of aquaculture. Codex Alimentarius Commission, Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, Codex Committee on Fish and Fishery Products. CX/FFP 96/7: 47 pp.
- Kabata-Pendias, A., Piotrowska, A.M. and Dudka, S., 1993. Trace metals in legumes and monofyledors and their suitability to the assessment of soil contamination. In: Plants as Biomonotors. B. Markert, Ed.; Weinhaum: Berlin,Germany, P. 485-494.
- Khan, M. J., Drochner, W., Steingass, H. and Islam, K. M. S., 2008. Nutritive evaluation of some tree leaves from Bangladesh for feeding ruminant animals. Indian J. Anim. Sci., Vol. 78, No. 11, P. 1273-1277.
- Kidd, P.S. and Monterroso, C., 2005. Metal extraction by Alyssum serpyllifolium ssp. lusitanicum on mine-spoil soils from Spain, Science of the Total environment, Vol. 336, P. 1-11.
- Kumar, P.B.A.N., Dushenkov, V., Motto, H. and Raskin, I., 1995. Phytoextraction: The use of plants to remove heavy metals from soils, Envviron. Sci.Technol., Vol. 29, P. 1232-1238.
- Murat, R. C., 1972. Stratigraphy and palaeogeography of the Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary in southern Nigeria. In: Dessauvagie, T. F. J., Whiteman, A. J., (eds). African Geology. Nigeria: University of Ibadan Press, P. 251-266.
- Nwachukwu, S.O., 1972. The tectonic evolution of the Southern portion of the Benue Trough, Nigeria. Geol. Mag., Vol. 109, P. 411-419.
- Nwajide, C. S. and Reijers, T. J. A., 1996. Geology of the southern Anambra Basin. In: Reijers, T. J. A., (ed). Selected Chapters on Geology. Warri: SPDC, P. 133-148.
- Obi, G. C., 2000. Depositional model for the Campanian‑Maastrichtian Anambra Basin, Southern Nigeria. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.
- Reyment RA (1965). Aspects of the Geology of Nigeria, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. 145pp.
- Rotkittikhun, R., Kruatrachue, M., Chaiyarat, R., Ngernsansaruay, C., Pokethitiyook, P., Paijitprapaporn, A. and Baker, A.J.M., 2006. Uptake and accumulation of lead by plants from the Bo Ngam lead mine area in Thailand. Environ. Pollut., Vol 144, P. 681-688.
- Smith, R.A.H. and Bradshaw, A.D., 1979. The use of metal tolerant plant populations for the reclamation of metalliferous wastes, J. Appl. Ecol., Vol. 16, P. 595-612.
- Walter, R., Catherine, K. and Katia, B., 2003. Phytoextraction capacity of trees growing on a metal contaminated soil, Plant Soil, Vol. 256, P. 265-27.
- Yanqun, Z., Yuan L., Schvartz, C., Langlade, L. and Fan, L., 2004. Accumulation of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in plants and hyperaccumulator choice in Lanping lead–zinc mine area, China, Environ. Int., Vol 30, P. 567-576.
Cite this Article:
International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.