Evaluation of Antipyretic and Analgesic Effects of Alchornea cordifolia Schum. & Thonn. (Euphorbiaceae) and Quassia Africana Baill (Simaroubaceae)

Evaluation of Antipyretic and Analgesic Effects of Alchornea cordifolia Schum. & Thonn. (Euphorbiaceae) and Quassia Africana Baill (Simaroubaceae)

Loading document ...
Page
of
Loading page ...

Author(s)

Author(s): Nsonde Ntandou GF, Kimpouni Victor, Dianzitoukoulou Matsima Louis Donald, Abena Ange Antoine

Download Full PDF Read Complete Article

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.2255 56 289 1-7 Volume 9 - Jan 2020

Abstract

Alchornea cordifolia (Euphorbiaceae) is widely used in Africa for the treatment of malaria, fever, tooth decay, leprosy, amoebic dysentery, hemorrhoids, headaches, venereal diseases and inflammation. It is also used as emmenagogue and oxytocic. Quassia africana (Simaroubaceae) is also widely used in Africa for the treatment of malaria, gastritis, intestinal worms, rheumatism, bronchopneumonia, gonorrhea, headache, tooth decay and tonsillitis. The present study aims to highlight the analgesic and antipyretic effects of both plants. Fever was induced by oral administration of 20 ml / kg of 20% beer yeast in rats 24 hours before treatment. The rectal temperature was measured 1h, 2h and 3h after treatment. The pain was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 0.1 ml / 10 g of 0.6% acetic acid in rats 1 hour after oral treatment. The analgesic activity was assessed for 10 minutes by counting the number of cramps. The aqueous, ethanolic and dichloromethane extracts of the leaves and fruits of Alchornea cordifolia at 400 and 800 mg / kg per os showed a very significant antipyretic effect identical to paracetamol at 100 mg / kg per os. The aqueous extracts of the leaves and fruits of Alchornea cordifolia as well as barks of Quassia africana at 400 and 800 mg / kg per os showed a very significant analgesic effect. These effects are related to the presence of alkaloids and terpenes for Alchornea cordifolia and Quassinoides for Quassia africana.

Keywords

Alchornea Cordifolia, Quassia Africana, Extracts, Analgesic, Antipyretic

References

  1. Adejuwon A A, Adekunle I O, Ismail O I, Hassanat A K. Evaluation of the anti-arthritic activity of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of alchornea cordifolia in rats, Afr. J. Tra, Comple and Alter. Med. 2014, 11: 402-410.
  2. Adjanohoun E J, Aké Assi L, Taffam K K, Keoula Y, Kluga-Ocloo WP. Contribution aux études ethnobotaniques et floristiques en République Populaire du Congo. ACCT, Paris, 1988: 605 p.
  3. Adjanohoun E., Cuset G., Issa Lo, Keita A., Le Bras M. &Lejoly J., , Banque des données de médecine traditionnelle et pharmacopée (PHARMEL). Notice pour la collecte et l’entrée des données, seconde édition P.U.B, Bruxelles,1994 : 142p.
  4. Alvesa I. A.B.S., Miranda H. M., Soaresa L. A.L., Randaua K. P.,. Simaroubaceae family: botany, chemical composition and biological activities. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn. 2014, 24: 481-501.
  5. Akpo, C. O. and Owhe-Ureghe, U. B.. Alchornea cordifolia: a herb with the potential for phytotherapy against clostridium tetani, pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus. Nigerian Journal of Science and Environment, 2016, 14 (1):77-84.
  6. Apers S., Cimanga K., Van den Bergehe D., Van Meenen W., Longanga A.O., Foriers A., Vlietinck A., Pieters L.,. Antiviral activity of simalikalactone D, a quassinoids from Quassia Africana. Planta Med. 2002, 68(1): 20-24.
  7. Agbor G.A., Leopold T., Jeanne N.Y., 2004. The antidiarrhoeal activity of Alchornea cordifolia leaf extract. Phytotherapy Research 18: 873-876.
  8. Barbosa L., Braz-Filho R., Vieira I.. Chemical constituents of plants from the genus Simaba (Simaroubaceae). Chem. Biodivers, 8 : 2163-2178.
  9. Bouquet A, 1969-Féticheurs et Médecine Traditionnelle du Congo Brazzaville, Mémoire ORSTOM, N°36, Brazzaville, 2011 : 249p.
  10. Bouquet A- Plantes médicinales du Congo-Brazzaville, Mémoire ORSTOM, N°36, Brazzaville, 1972 : 116p.
  11. Bouquet et Jacquot A- Essai de géographie linguistique sur quelques plantes médicinales du Congo Brazzaville, 1967 : 32p.
  12. Canadian council on Animal care. Guide to the Care use of experimental animals. Vol 1, appendix IV, 1980: 85p.
  13. Diehl C., Reznichenko N., Casero R., Faenza L., Cuffini C., Palacios S.. Novel antibacterial, antifungal and antiparasitic activities of Quassia amara wood extract. International Journal of Pharmacology, Phytochemistry and Ethnomedicine, ,2016 : 2: 62-71.
  14. Ebenyi L. N., Nwakaeze A. E.,Moses I. B., Iroha I. R., Uzoeto J.O., Ugochukwu J. I., Eddison I. O. and Okamkpa C. J. Antibacterial activity of Alchornea cordifolia leaves found in Ebonyi state, Nigeria. International Journal of Advances in Pharmacy, Biology and Chemistry IJAPBC, 2017; 6(1):46-51.
  15. Effo K. E., Kouakou-Siransy G., Irie-Nguessan G., Sawadogo R. W., Dally I. L., Kamenan A. B., Kouakou L. S., Kablan-Brou J. Acute toxicity and antipyretic activities of a methanolic extract of Alchornea cordifolia leaves. Pharmacology & Pharmacy, 2013; 4: 1-6.
  16. Emudainohwo J.O.T., Goodies E. M., Daniel E.E., Earnest O., Erhirhie O. An investigation into the anti-diarrhoeal effects of aqueous and ethanol stem bark extracts of Alchornea cordifolia in wistar rats, J. of Pharmaco. and Phytochem. 2015; 4: 183-187.
  17. Gatsing D., Nkeugouapi F.N., Nji-Nkah B. F., Kuiate J., Tchouanguep F. M. Antibacterial activity, bioavailability and acute toxicity evaluation of the leaf extract of Alchornea cordifolia (Euphorbiaceae), Int. J. of Pharm., 2010; 6: 173-182.
  18. Guo Z., Vangapandu S., Sindelar S.W., Walker L.A., Sindelar R.D.. Biologically active quassinoids and their chemistry: potential leads for drug design. Current Med. Chem.,2005; 12: 173-190.
  19. Ishola I.O., Agbaje E.O., Akinleye M.O., Ibeh C.O., Adeyemi O.O. Antidepressant like effect of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) in mice: involvement of monoaminergic system. J. Ethnopharm., 2014; 158: 364-372.
  20. Ismaila O., Ishola R.B., Ashorobi, Olusegun A. Evaluation of the antinociceptive activities of the aqueous root extract of Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach and Thonn) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceace), Int. J. of Appl Res. in Nat. Prod., 12012; 5: 37-42.
  21. Jensen O., Nielsen A.O., Bjerregaard P., 1978. Pediculosis capitis treated with Quassia tincture. Acta Derm. Venereol., 58(6): 557-559.
  22. Jude E. Okokon, Nkemnele Bensella Augustine & Dinesh Mohanakrishnan. Antimalarial, antiplasmodial and analgesic activities of root extract of Alchornea laxiflora. Pharmaceutical Biology, 2017: 1-11.
  23. Kamenan G., Kouakou-Siransy, Irié-Nguessan, Dally I., Kablan B.. Anxiolytic activity of an aqueous extract of Alchornea cordifolia (Euphorbiaceae) leaves. Afr J. of Pharm. and Pharmacology, 2013; 7: 816-821.
  24. Kirby G.C., O’Neill M.J., Philippson J.D., Warhurst D.C. In-vitro studies on the mode of action of quassinoids with activity against chloroqine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Biochem. Pharmacol., 1989; 38(24): 4367-4374.
  25. Mambe F.T., Voukeng I. K., Beng V. P., and Kuete V. Antibacterial activities of methanol extracts from Alchornea cordifolia and four other Cameroonian plants against MDR phenotypes. J. of Taibah Univ. Medic. Sci., 2016: 1- 7.
  26. Mavar-Manga H., Haddad L., Pieters C., Baccelli A., Penge J., Quetin-Leclercq. Anti-inflammatory compounds from leaves and root bark of Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) M¨ull. Arg. J. of Ethnopharm, 2008 115: 25-29.
  27. Mbatchi S.F., Mbatchi B., Banzouzi J.T., Bansimba T., NsondeNtandou G.F., Ouamba J.M., Berry A., Benoit-Vical F. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of 18 plants used in Congo Brazzaville traditional medicine. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2006; 104(1-2): 168-174.
  28. Mesia G.K., Tona G.L., Nanga T.H., Cimanga R.K., Apers S., Cos P., Maes L., Pieters L., Vlietinck A.J. Antiprotozoal and cytotoxic screening of 45 plant ex-tracts from Democratic Republic of Congo, J. of Ethnopharm., 2008; 115 : 409-415.
  29. Mohammed R.K., Ibrahim S., Atawodi S.E., Eze E.D., Suleiman J.B. Anti-diabetic and Haematological Effects of n-butanol fraction of Alchornea cordifolia leaf extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats. Global J. of Medic. Plant Res., 2012; 1: 14-21.
  30. Ngaha N.M., Dahlan I. and Massoma L.D. Alchornea Cordifolia, a special plant for traditional medicine: a review. Journal of Agroecology and Natural Resource Management, 2016; 3 (2): 140-144.
  31. Noundou S. X., Krause R.W.M., Van Vuuren S.F., Tantoh N., Olivier D.K. Antibacterial effects of Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. and Thonn.) Müll. Arg extracts and compounds on gastrointestinal, skin, respiratory and urinary tract pathogens. J. of Ethnopharm., 2016; 179:76-82.
  32. Noundou S.X., Musyoka T. M., Moses V., Ndinteh D. T., Mnkandhla D., Hoppe H., ÖzlemTastan B. & Krause R. M. Anti-HIV-1 integrase potency of methylgallate from Alchornea cordifolia using in vitro and in silico approaches. Scientific reports, 2019; 1-9.
  33. Nsonde-Ntandou G.F., Banzouzi J.T, Mbatchi B, Elion-Itou RD, Etou-Ossibi AW, Ramos S, Benoit-Vical F, Abena AA and. Ouamba J.M. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Cassia siamea Lam. stem bark extracts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2010; 127: 108-111.
  34. O.M.S. Promotion et développement de la médecine traditionnelle. Genève, séries de rapports techniques, 1978: 622p.
  35. Olaleye M. T., Kolawole A. O. and Ajele J. O. Antioxidant properties and glutathione s-transferases inhibitory activity of Alchornea cordifolia leaf extract in acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Iranian Journal of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 2007; 6: 63-66.
  36. Toma W., Gracioso J.S., Andrade J.D.P., Hiruma-Lima C.A., Vilegas W., Souza Brito A.R.M. Antiulcerogenic activity of four extracts obtained from the bark wood of Quassia amara L. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 2002; 25(9):1151-1155.
  37. Toma W., Gracioso J.S., Hiruma-Lima C.A., Andrade F.D.P., Vilegas W., Souza Brito A.R.M.. Evaluation of the analgesic and antiedematogenic activities of Quassia amara bark extract. J.Ethnopharmacol, 2003; 85: 19-23.
  38. Thomford A.K., et al. The ethanolic leaf extract of Alchornea cordifolia (Schum. & Thonn.) Muell. Arg inhibits the development of dyslipidaemia and hyperglycaemia in dexamethasone-induced diabetic rats. J. App. Pharma. Sci., 2015; 5: 052-055.
  39. Umukoro S., Aladeokin A.C. Evaluation of the Anti-Stress and Anticonvulsant Activities of Leaf Extract of Alchornea cordifolia in Mice. J. of Ethnopharm., 2010; 127: 768-770.
  40. Wright C.W., O’Neill M.J., Philippson J.D., Warhurst D.C. Use of microdilution to assess in-vitro antiamoebic activities of Brucea javanica fruits, Simarouba amara stem, and a number of quassinoids. Antimicrob Agents Chemother., 1988; 32(11):1725-1729.
  41. Yinusa Raji, Ganiyat Kehinde Oloyede. Antiulcerogenic effects and possible mechanism of action of Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae) extract and its bioactive principles in rats. Afr. J. Tradit. Complement. Altern. Med., 2012; 9(1):112‐119.
  42. Zimmermann M, 1983. Ethical guidelines for investigations of experimental pain in conscious animals. Pain, 1983; 16: 109–110.

Cite this Article:

  • BibTex
  • RIS
  • APA
  • Harvard
  • IEEE
  • MLA
  • Vancouver
  • Chicago

International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.

Search Articles

Issue August 2020

Volume 9, August 2020


Table of Contents



World-wide Delivery is FREE

Share this Issue with Friends:


Submit your Paper