Scanning Electron Microscopy Study of Di-Calcium Phosphate Dehydrate Coatings on Magnesium Substrates for Potential Use in Orthopaedic Implants

Scanning Electron Microscopy Study of Di-Calcium Phosphate Dehydrate Coatings on Magnesium Substrates for Potential Use in Orthopaedic Implants

Loading document ...
Loading page ...


Author(s): Lennart Schaefer, Wisut Chamsa-ard, Derek Fawcett, Chun Che Fung, Gerrard Eddy Jai Poinern

Download Full PDF Read Complete Article

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.2281 35 140 22-26 Volume 9 - Mar 2020


Magnesium has attracted considerable medical interest due to its mechanical properties being similar to bone. In addition, magnesium is also biocompatible and biodegradable, which makes it an ideal candidate for biodegradable orthopaedic implants. However, magnesium’s high corrosion rate in body fluids makes it an unsuitable material for the manufacture of implants. The present study investigates a straightforward chemical immersion technique that deposits di-calcium phosphate dehydrate (DCPD) coatings onto magnesium substrates to increase their corrosion resistance to body simulated fluids like phosphate buffer saline solution and Ringer’s solution. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the coating structures and morphologies were characterised by flower-like surface feature that were resistant to both body simulated fluids. Thus, indicating the coatings could significantly reduce magnesium corrosion rates in the body environment.


Magnesium, Biodegradation, Protective Coating, Orthopaedic Implants


  1. Hsieh CY., Tsai SP., Wang DM., Chang YN., Hsieh HJ. Preparation of g-PGA/chitosan composite tissue engineering matrices. Biomaterials. 2005; 26: 5617–5623.
  2. Cooke FW., Lemons JE., Ratner BD. Properties of materials, in biomaterials science: An introduction to materials in science, B.D. Ratner, A.S. Hoffman, F.J. Schoen, J.E. Lemons, Editors: Academic Press, San Diego, USA. 1996, 11-35.
  3. Ramakrishna S, Ramalingam M, Sampath TS, Soboyejo WO. Biomaterials: A Nano Approach, CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA, 2010.
  4. Geetha M., Singh AK., Asokamani R., Gogia AK. Ti based biomaterials, the ultimate choice for orthopaedic implants – A review. Prog. Mat. Sci. 2009; 54: 397-425.
  5. Williams DF. Titanium for medical applications, in titanium in medicine, D.M. Brunette, P. Tengvall, M. Textor, P. Thomsen, Editors, Springer: Berlin, Germany. 2001, 561-585.
  6. Williams DF. Tissue-biomaterial interactions, J. Mater. Sci, 1987; 22: 3421-3445.
  7. Lhotka C., Szekeres T., Steffan I., Zhuber K., Zweymuller K. Four-year study of cobalt and chromium blood levels in patients managed with two different metal-on-metal total hip replacements. Journal of Orthopaedic Research. 2003; 21(2): 189-195.
  8. Haynes DR., Boyle SJ., Rogers SD., Howie DW., Vernon-Robert B. Variation in cytokines induced by patients from different prosthetic materials. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 1998; 352: 323-230.
  9. Shadanbaz S., Dias GJ. Calcium phosphate coatings on magnesium alloys for biomedical applications: A review. Acta Biomaterialia. 2012; 8: 20-30.
  10. Ambrose CG., Clanton TO. Bioabsorbable implants: Review of clinical experience in orthopaedic surgery. Ann Biomed Eng. 2004; 32: 171–177.
  11. Poinern GEJ., Brundavanam R., Le X., Nicholls PK., Cake MA., Fawcett D. 2014. The synthesis, characterisation and in vivo study of a bioceramic for potential tissue regeneration applications. Scientific Reports. 2014; 4(6235): 1-9.
  12. Poinern GEJ., Brundavanam S., and Fawcett D. Biomedical Magnesium Alloys: A Review of Material Proper ties, Surface Modifications and Potential as a Biodegradable Orthopaedic Implant. American Journal of Biomedical Engineering. 2012; 2(6): 218-240.
  13. Razavi M., Fathi MH., Meratian M. et al., 2010, Micro structure, mechanical properties and bio-corrosion evaluation of biodegradable AZ91-FA nanocomposites for biomedical applications. Materials Science and Engineering A. 2010; 527(26): 6938- 6944.
  14. Feng A., and Han Y. The microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties of calcium phosphate reinforced ZK60A magnesium alloy composites, Journal of Alloys and Compounds. 2010; 504: 585-593.
  15. Mark PS., Alexis MP., Jerawala H., Goerge D. Magnesium and its alloys as orthopaedic biomaterials: A review, Biomaterials. 2006; 27(9): 1728-1734.
  16. Wen CE., Mabuchi M., Yamada Y., Shimojima K., Chino Y., Asahina T. Processing of biocompatible porous Ti and Mg. Scripta Materialia. 2001; 45(10): 1147-1153.
  17. Witte F., Kaese V., Haferkamp H., Switzer E., Meyer-Lindenberg A., Wirth CJ., Windhagen H. 2005, In vivo corrosion of magnesium alloys and the associated bone response, Biomaterials. 2005; 26(17): 3557-3563.
  18. Li L., Gao J., Wang Y. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and corrosion behaviour of alkali- heat-treated magnesium in simulated body fluid. Surf Coat Technol. 2004; 185: 92– 98.
  19. Song G. 2007, Control of biodegradation of biocompatible magnesium alloys, Corrosion Science. 2007; 49(4): 1696-1701.
  20. Brundavanam S., Poinern GEJ., Fawcett D. Growth of Flower-Like Brushite Structures on Magnesium Substrates and Their Subsequent Low Temperature Transformation to Hydroxyapatite. American Journal of Biomedical Engineering. 2014; 4(4): 79-87.
  21. Wang Y., Wei M., Gao J. Improve corrosion resistance of magnesium in simulated body fluid by dicalcium phosphate dihydrate coating. Materials Science and Engineering: C. 2009; 29: 1311-1316.
  22. Hiromoto S., Shishido T., Yamamoto A, Maruyama N, Somekawa H, Mukai T. Precipitation control of calcium phosphate on pure magnesium by anodization, Corrosion Science. 2008; 50: 2906-2913.
  23. Zeng RC., Dietzel W., Witte F., Hort N., Blawert C. Progress and challenges for magnesium alloys as biomaterials. Advanced Engineering Materials. 2008; 10: B3-B14.

Cite this Article:

International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.

Search Articles

Issue June 2023

Volume 12, June 2023

Table of Contents

World-wide Delivery is FREE

Share this Issue with Friends:

Submit your Paper