The aim of the present study is to examine winged accrescent sepals in the Chenopodiaceae and determine diagnostic characteristics that lead to their discrimination and possibly of taxonomic significance. Nine species belonging to six genera of the family Chenopodiaceae (Subfamily Salsoloideae, Tribe Salsoleae) were dissected, examined, photographed and line illustrated. Seven qualitative and two quantitative characters were investigated. These characters include orientation, symmetry, position with respect to sepals, shape, plane, colour, indumentums, length and width of wings. The present study showed that these wings share several common features, but the diagnostically distinct characteristics of Anabasis setifera, Salsola cyclophylla and S. imbricata were noticed. These distinct wing features were supported by molecular data which suggested their transfer to different genera. These wing characteristics provided further insights into their possible use to reassess the taxonomy of the Chenopodiaceae.
Anabasis setifera, Salsola cyclophylla, S. imbricata, Caroxylon
- Akhani, H., Trimborn, P. and Ziegler, H. (1997). Photosynthetic pathways in Chenopodiaceae from Africa, Asia and Europe with their ecological, phytogeographical and taxonomical importance. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 206: 187-221. https://doi.org/10.100/BF00987948.
- Akhani, H., Edwards, G. and Roalson, E.H. (2007). Diversification of the Old World Salsoleae s.l. (Chenopodiaceae): molecular, phylogenetic analysis of nuclear and chloroplast data sets and a revised classification. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 168 (6): 931-956. https://doi.org/10.1086/518263.
- Akhani, H., Khoshraveah, R. and Malekmohammadi, M. (2016). Taxonomic novelties from Irano- Turanian region and N.E. Iran: Oreosalsola, a new segregation from Salsola s.l., two new species in Anabasis and Salvia, and two new combinations in Caroxylon and Seseli. Phytotaxa, 249(1): 159-180. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.249.1.7.
- Bhatt, A., Phartyl, S.S. and Nicholas, A. (2017). Ecological role of distinct fruit-wing perianth color in synchronization of seed germination in Haloxylon salicornicum. Plant Species Biology, 32(2): 121-133. https://doi.org/10.1111/1442-1984.12133.
- Cabrera, J.F., Jacobs, S.W.L. and Kadereit, G. (2009). Phylogeny of the Australian Camphorosmeae (Chenopodiaceae) and the taxonomic significance of the fruiting perianth. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 170(4): 505-521. https://doi.org/10.1086/597267.
- Chu, G., Wang, M. and Zhang, S. (2014). Factors influencing seed germination of medicinal plant Anabasis aphylla L. in salt desert of Xinjiang, China. International Journal of plant Research, 27(1):123-129. https://doi.org/10.5958/j.2229-4473.1.020.
- El Ghazali, G.E.B. (2018). Winged accrescent sepals and their taxonomic significance within the Chenopodiaceae: a review. International Journal of Sciences, 7(5): 1-6. https://doi.10.18483/ijsci.1650.
- El Keblawy, A.A., Bhatt, A. and Gairola, S. (2014). Perianth colour affects germination behaviour in wind-pollinated Salsola rubescens in Arabian deserts. Botany, 92:(1) 69-75. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjb-2013-0183.
- Feodorova, T.A. (2011). Phylogenetic relations of the South African species of Caroxylon sect. Caroxylon and tetragonae (Chenopodiaceae) based on the morphology and nrlTS sequences. Turczaninowia, 14(3): 69-76. https://cyberleninka.ru.
- GBIF (2015). Global Biodiversity Information Facility. https://www.gbif.org.
- Jurado, E.N., Westoby, M. and Nelson, D. (1991). Diaspore weight, dispersal, growth form and perenniality of Central Australian Plants. Journal of Ecology, 79(3):811-828. https://doi.10.2307/2260669.
- Kadereit, G., Borsch, T., Weising, K. and Freitag, H. (2003). Phylogeny of Amaranthaceae and Chenopodiaceae and the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 164(6): 959-986. http://doi.10.1086/378649.
- Kapralov, M.V., Akhani, H., Voznesenskaya, E.V., Edwards, G., Franceschi, V. and Roalson, E.H. (2006). Phylogenetic relationships in the Salicornioideae/ Suaedoideae/ Salsoloideae s.l. (Chenopodiaceae) clade and a clarification of the phylogenetic position of Bienertia and Alexandra using multiple DNA sequence datasets. Systematic Botany, 31:571-585. https://www.jstor.org/stable/25064186.
- Pratt, D.P.B. (2003). Phylogeny and morphological evolution of the Chenopodiaceae- Amaranthaceae alliance. Iowa State University Digital Repository. https://doi.org/10.31274/rtd-180813-11233.
- Saxena, N.P. (2010). Objective Botany. Krishna Prakashan Media (P) Ltd. http://www.bookdepository.co/objective_botany-N-P-Saxena
- Sukhorukov, A.P. (2007). Notes on the taxonomy of Girgensohnia (Chenopodiaceae/ Amaranthaceae). Edinburgh Journal of Botany, 64(3):317-330. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0960428607004751.
- TPL (2025). The Plant List. https://www.theplantlist.org.
- Welsh, S.L., Crompton, C.W. and Clements, S.E. (2003). Chenopodiaceae Ventenat. In: Flora of North America, vol. 4. http://www.eFloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=1018.
- Wen, Z., Zhang, M., Zhu, G. and Sanderson, S.C. (2010). Phylogeny of Salsoleae s.l. (Chenopodiaceae) based on DNA sequence data from ITS, psbB-psbH, and rbcL, with emphasis on taxa of northwestern China. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 288: 25-42. https://doi.10.1007/s00606-010-0310-5.
- Yu, J., Hu, X., Wang, Y., Yang, L. and Zhang, B. (2009). Effects of winged perianth and its water extracts of Zygophyllum xanthoxylum on seeds germination. Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica, 29(4):795-799. https://www.cnki.com.cn
Cite this Article:
International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.