Retrospective Analysis of Breast Cancer Cases Operated in Jush within Four Years Time Period, Jimma, Ethiopia

Retrospective Analysis of Breast Cancer Cases Operated in Jush within Four Years Time Period, Jimma, Ethiopia

Loading document ...
Loading page ...


Author(s): Ruhama Yoseph

Download Full PDF Read Complete Article

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.2510 38 105 4-21 Volume 10 - Oct 2021


Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world. It is also the commonest cancer affecting women with also highest cancer related death rate. However due to the poor cancer registry in developing countries the exact magnitude of the problem is not known. In Ethiopia breast cancer is the second most common cancer next to cervical cancer. The fact that Sub-Saharan African has peculiar epidemiological trends of breast cancer has drawn the attention of many to the region. These peculiar features include relatively younger age of affected women, high mortality rates and triple-negativity of the cancer. Additionally, a poor association with life time estrogen exposure has been observed. Despite the generally observed great burden of breast cancer, Ethiopia is one of the countries where the clinical and pathological characteristics of the cancer are not well researched. This study tries to fill this information gap by studying the situation observed in JUSH, which is the highest referral center available for Southwestern part of the country. The general objective of this study was to retrospectively determine demographic characteristics of patients, risk factors, clinical presentation and pathological description of the breast cancers, the modes of treatment given for breast cancer among cases operated at JUSH from September 11, 2010 to September 10, 2014 GC. The study was conducted in JUSH from August 6-14, 2015 GC and cross-sectional study design was used. The study population was those patients with diagnosis of breast cancer who are electively operated at JUSH from September 11, 2010 to September 10, 2014 GC according to the operation log book in the operating theatre. Data was collected from patients’ charts on a structured questionnaire that was filled by the principal investigator. Collected data was cleared, checked and stored. Data analysis was done on computer with the help of SPSS 16.0 program. Through-out the study confidentiality of information was respected. Letters of ethical clearance were obtained from the CBE office of JU before the start of the study. The result of study showed a number of peculiar features which included higher rate of male breast cancer (10.4%), younger than 50 years distribution of majority of female patients (68%), the presence of protective gynecologic & reproductive factors to breast cancer in the majority of the affected women, and late presentation of patients. Majority of patients were having advanced breast cancer (Stage III & IV disease in 76.8%) and high percentage of nodal involvement (90.7%). Despite these findings detailed pathological characterization of the tumor has not been effected and information on receptor positivity status of the cancers is lacking. Additionally, the percentage of patients who pursued adjuvant therapy after surgical management was found to be very low (14.7%). In conclusion, the epidemiological trend of breast cancer patients seen at JUSH within the mentioned four years’ time period was found to have major epidemiological deviations from trends that were seen in the world. The unfortunate late presentation of patients is also manifested by advanced stages of disease at diagnosis that theoretically is beyond curability. Prospective studies focusing on the epidemiology of breast cancer and further characterization of tumor biology & genetics should be performed in the future. Moreover, clinicians, public health workers and policy makers should work on increasing the awareness towards breast cancer, introduction of breast self-examination techniques and launching of effective breast cancer screening programs.


Breast Cancer, Ethiopia


  1. Anim JT. Breast cancer in sub-Saharan African women. Afr J Med Med Sci. 1993 Mar;22(1):5-10.
  2. Alero Fregene & Lisa A. Newman. Breast Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa: How Does it Relate to Breast Cancer in African-American Women? CANCER (2005); 103(8): 1540-1550
  3. Brunicardi F Charles and others. Schwartz’s Principles of Surgery, 9th ed.2010
  4. De Ver Dye T and others. A mixed-method assessment of beliefs and practice around breast cancer in Ethiopia: Implication for public health programming and cancer control. Global Public Health: An International Journal for Research, Policy & Practice (2011); 6(7):719-31
  5. International Agency for Cancer Research. GLOBOCAN 2012: Estimated Cancer incidence, Mortality and Prevalence Worldwide in 2008.
  6. International Agency for Cancer Research. GLOBOCAN 2012: Estimated Cancer incidence, Mortality and Prevalence Worldwide in 2012.
  7. International Agency for Cancer Research (IARC), No 223, 2013
  8. John P.A., Moses G., Olivia K. and Jane O.F. High serum Estradiol confers no risk for breast cancer: another disparity for Sub-Saharan African women. Pan African Medical Journal (2012); 12: 23
  9. Jonathan S. Berek . Berek &Novak’s Gynecology, 14th ed. 2007
  10. Madani Ly and others. High Incidence of triple-Negative Tumors in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Prospective Study of Breast Cancer Characteristics and Risk Factors in Malian Women in Bamako University Hospital. Oncology (2012); 83:257-263
  11. Omer EL Faroug H Salim. Breast Cancer in Africa; Are we dealing with a different disease. Sudan Medical Journal (2014); 50(1)
  12. Ries LAG and others. SEER Survival Monograph: Cancer Survival Among Adults: U.S. SEER Program, 1988-2001. National Cancer institute, SEER Program, NIC Pub. No. 07-6215, Bethseda, MD, 2007.
  13. Riyaz Bhikoo and others. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 1): Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. CANCER (2011);3,2358-2381
  14. Tessema Ersumo. Breast Cancer in an Ethiopian Population, Addis Ababa. East and Central African Journal of Surgery (2006); 11 (1): 81-86
  15. Timothy D. Dye & Solomon Bogale. Experience of initial symptoms of breast cancer and triggers for action in Ethiopia. International Journal of Breast Cancer (2012);908547:5

Cite this Article:

International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.

Search Articles

Issue June 2023

Volume 12, June 2023

Table of Contents

World-wide Delivery is FREE

Share this Issue with Friends:

Submit your Paper