Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Some Commonly Sold Fruits in Lafia City Modern Market

Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Some Commonly Sold Fruits in Lafia City Modern Market

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Author(s): M. O. Aremu, Halima Eshi Ibrahim, Jude Chinedu Onwuka, Abel Uche Augustine, Yahaya Yakubu Ishaleku

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DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.2542 26 93 28-33 Volume 11 - Jan 2022


Levels of nickel, zinc, arsenic, copper, lead, cadmium, chromium, iron, mercury and selenium were determined in mango (Magnifera indica), cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and pawpaw (Carica papaya) sold in Modern Market (Central Market) of Lafia City, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The study also assessed the potential health risks from the consumption of these fruits. The samples were randomly collected at two different times for one month interval, processed and analyzed for heavy metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The result showed that the mean metal concentrations recorded for mango, cucumber and pawpaw in the decreasing order were: Cd < As < Pb < Cr < Hg < Se < Ni < Zn < Cu < Fe, Cd < As < Hg < Pb < Cr < Se < Ni < Cu < Zn< Fe and Hg < Ni < Cd < As < Pb < Cr < Se < Zn < Cu < Fe, respectively. Generally, the highest mean metal concentration in all the fruit samples was Fe. The average daily intake (ADI) values indicate that all the heavy metals in the fruit samples are below the permissible limits as endorsed by WHO/FAO. Also, hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard indices (HI) values do not exceed unity. Therefore, none of the fruit samples under investigation poses any health risks to the consumers as their HI was less than 1.


Mango, Cucumber, Pawpaw, ADI, HQ, HI


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