Author(s): M. O. Aremu, Halima Eshi Ibrahim, Jude Chinedu Onwuka, Abel Uche Augustine, Yahaya Yakubu Ishaleku
Levels of nickel, zinc, arsenic, copper, lead, cadmium, chromium, iron, mercury and selenium were determined in mango (Magnifera indica), cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and pawpaw (Carica papaya) sold in Modern Market (Central Market) of Lafia City, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The study also assessed the potential health risks from the consumption of these fruits. The samples were randomly collected at two different times for one month interval, processed and analyzed for heavy metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The result showed that the mean metal concentrations recorded for mango, cucumber and pawpaw in the decreasing order were: Cd < As < Pb < Cr < Hg < Se < Ni < Zn < Cu < Fe, Cd < As < Hg < Pb < Cr < Se < Ni < Cu < Zn< Fe and Hg < Ni < Cd < As < Pb < Cr < Se < Zn < Cu < Fe, respectively. Generally, the highest mean metal concentration in all the fruit samples was Fe. The average daily intake (ADI) values indicate that all the heavy metals in the fruit samples are below the permissible limits as endorsed by WHO/FAO. Also, hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard indices (HI) values do not exceed unity. Therefore, none of the fruit samples under investigation poses any health risks to the consumers as their HI was less than 1.
Mango, Cucumber, Pawpaw, ADI, HQ, HI
- Oves, M. Khan, M. S., Zaidi, A. & Ahmad, E. (2012). Soil contamination, nutritive value and human health risk assessment of heavy metals: An overview. In: Zaidi A, Wani P A, Khan M S, eds., Toxicity of Heavy Metals To Legumes and Bioremediation.
- Jarup, L. (2003). Hazards of heavy metal contamination, British Medical Bulletin, 68(1): 167–182,
- Sharma, R. K., Agrawal, M. & Marshall, F. M. 2009. Heavy metals in vegetables collected from production and market sites of a tropical urban area of India, Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47, 583–591.
- Ferré-Huguet N, Martí-Cid, R. Schuhmacher, M. & Domingo J. L. (2008). Risk assessment of metals from consuming vegetables, fruits and rice grown on soils irrigated with waters of the Ebro River in Catalonia, Spain. BiologicalTrace Element Research, 123, 66–79.
- D’Mello, J. P. (2003). Food safety: Contamination and Toxins, CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon, UK, Cambridge, p. 480.
- Zaidi, M. I. Asrar, A. Mansoor, A. & Farooqui, M. A. (2005). The heavy metal concentrations along roadsides trees of Quetta and its effects on public health, J. Appl. Sci.5, 708–711, https://doi.org/10.3923/jas.2005.708.
- Radwan, M. A. & Salama, A. K. (2006). Market basket survey for some heavy metals in Egyptian fruits and vegetables, Food Chem. Toxicol. 44, 1273–1278, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2006.02.004.
- Dauchet, L., Montaye, M., Ruldavets, J., Arveiler, D., Kee, F., Ferriere, J., Haas, B., Evans, A., Ducimetiere, P., Amouyel, P. & Dallongeville, J. (2010). Association between frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and cardiovascular disease in male smokers and non-smokers. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 64, 578 -586.
- Otitoloju, A.A. (2016). Today’s Apple: Perspective of an Environmental Toxicologist. 12th Inaugural Lecture, University of Lagos. University of Lagos Press, pp. 1–77.
- AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists), (2006). Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC (W.Horwitz Editor) Eighteenth Edition. Washighton D.C, AOAC
- Sultana, M., Mondol, M. N., Mahir, A. A., Sultana, R., Alahi, S. F., Afrose, N. & Chamon, A. S. (2019). Heavy metal concentration and health risk assessment in commonly sold vegetables in Dhaka city market. Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res., 54(4), 357 – 366.
- WHO (1996). Trace Elementsin Human Nutrition and Health, World HealthOrganization, Geneva, Switzerland.
- WHO/FAO (2012). Tech. rep, guidelines for the safe use of waste water and food stuff, report of the joint WHO/FAO volume 2 no. 1, World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Geneva, Switzerland
- Bermudez, G.M.A., Jasan, R.,Pla, R. & Pignata, M.L. (2011). Heavymetal and trace element concentrations in wheat grains: Assessment of potential non-carcinogenic health hazard through their consumption. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 193, 264–271.
- Aremu, M. O., Atolaiye, B. O. & Labaran, L. (2010). Environmental implication of metal concentrations in soil, plant foods and pond in area around the derelict Udege mines of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Bulletin Chem. Soc., Ethiopia, 24(3), 351 – 360.
- Divrikli, U., Horzum, N., Soylak, M. & Elci, L. (2006). Traceheavy metal contents of some species and herbalplants from Western Anatolia, Turkey, Int. J. Food Sci.Technol. 41, 712-716.
- Aleksandra, D.C. and Blaszczyk, U. (2008). The impact ofnickel on human health.Journal. Elementol, 13(4), 685-696.
- Hashmi, D. R., Khan, F. A., Shaikh, G. H. & Usmani, T. H. (2005). Determination of trace metals in the vegetablesproduced from local market of Karachi city by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, J. Chem. Soc., 27(4), 123 – 129.
- Gorell, J., Jonson, C. & Rybicki, B. C. (1997). Occupational exposure to metals as risk factors for Parkinson’sdisease, Neurol., 48(3), 650-8.
- Alam, M. G. M., Snow, E. T. & Tanaka, A. (2003). Arsenic and heavymetal contamination of vegetables grown in Samta village, Bangladesh. Science of the Total Environment, 308(1-3), 83–96.
- Demirezen, D. & Aksoy, A. (2006). Heavy metal levels in vegetablesin Turkey are within safe limits for Cu, Zn, Ni and exceeded for Cd and Pb, Journal of Food Quality, 29(3): 252–265.
- Rahman, M.M., Asaduzzaman, M. & Naidu, R. (2013). Consumption of As and other elements from vegetables and drinking water from as-contaminated area of Bangladesh, J. Hazard Mat, 262, 1056-63.
- Islam, R., Kumar, S., Karmoker, J., Sorowar, S., Rahman, A.,Sarkar, T. & Biswas, N. (2017). Heavy metals in common edible vegetables of industrial area Ikushtia, Bangladesh: A health risk study, Environmental Science. Ind. Journal, 13(5), 150.
- Chen, Y., Wu, P., Shao, Y. and Ying, Y. (2014). Health riskassessment of heavy metals in vegetables grownaround battery production area, Scientia Agricola,71(2): 126–132,
- Akinyele, I. O. & Osibanjo, O. (1982). Levels of some trace elements in hospital diets, Food Chemistry, 8(4), 247–251.
- Akoto, O., Bismark-Eshun, F., Darko, G. & Adei, E. (2014). Concentrations and health risk assessments of heavy metals in fish from the Fosu Lagoon. International Journal of Environmental Research, 8(2), 403–410.
Cite this Article:
International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.