Amygdala Kindling Alters Estrus Cycle and Ovarian Morphology in the Rat

Amygdala Kindling Alters Estrus Cycle and Ovarian Morphology in the Rat

Loading document ...
Loading page ...


Author(s): P. Andy Li, Juan Pan, Lingwu Zhang, Feng Wang, Dan Liu, Tao Sun

Download Full PDF Read Complete Article

447 937 12-21 Volume 2 - Nov 2013


The objective of this study is to explore the effects of amygdala kindling on estrus cycle and ovarian morphology. Thirty-five female rats at the age of 8 weeks were randomly designated to electrode kindled, sham-kindled, and normal controls. Kindled rats were implanted with kindling electrodes in the left basolateral amygdala and kindled by brief suprathreshold stimulations with a bipolar electrode. Estrous cycles were daily monitored through vaginal smears. Electrographic and behavioral seizures were recorded and ovarian morphology was evaluated by light and electron microscopies. Our results showed that the kindled rats lost their ovarian periodicity displayed significant ovarian enlargement. H&E staining revealed increased number of growing follicles and total follicles, as well as polycysts in the ovaries of the kindled animals compared to sham and control animals. Ultrastructural study detected numerous apoptotic granulosa cells in growing follicles and thecal cell hyperplasia with secretary granules in the thecal cells in the kindled rats. The results suggest that amygdala kindling is a risk factor for the development of polycystic ovary syndrome.


amygdala kindling, endocrinology, epileptogensis, estrus cycle, ovarian morphology, polycystic ovary syndrome, reproductive system


  1. Harden C L. Polycystic ovaries and polycystic ovary syndrome in epilepsy: evidence for neurogonadal disease. Epilepsy Curr, 2005,5:142-146
  2. Bilo L, Meo R, Valentino R, et al. Characterization of reproductive endocrine disorders in women with epilepsy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2001,86:2950-2956
  3. Roste LS, Tauboll E. Women and epilepsy: review and practical recommendations[J]. Expert Rev Neurother, 2007,7:289-300
  4. Genton P, Bauer J, Duncan S, et al. On the association between valproate and polycystic ovary syndrome[J]. Epilepsia, 2001,42:295-304
  5. Herzog AG. Altered reproductive endocrine regulation in men with epilepsy: implications for reproductive function and seizures. Ann Neurol, 2002,51:539-542
  6. Herzog AG, Coleman AE, Jacobs AR, et al. Interictal EEG discharges, reproductive hormones, and menstrual disorders in epilepsy. Ann Neurol, 2003,54:625-637
  7. Verrotti A, Greco R, Latini G, et al. Endocrine and metabolic changes in epileptic patients receiving valproic acid. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab, 2005,18:423-430
  8. Pack A. Effects of Treatment on Endocrine Function in Patients with Epilepsy. Curr Treat Options Neurol, 2005,7:273-280
  9. Gorkemli H, Genc B O, Dogan E A, et al. Long-term effects of valproic acid on reproductive endocrine functions in Turkish women with epilepsy[J]. Gynecol Obstet Invest, 2009,67:223-227
  10. Lofgren E, Mikkonen K, Tolonen U, et al. Reproductive endocrine function in women with epilepsy: the role of epilepsy type and medication. Epilepsy Behav, 2007,10:77-83
  11. Isojarvi JI, Tauboll E, Herzog AG. Effect of antiepileptic drugs on reproductive endocrine function in individuals with epilepsy. CNS Drugs, 2005,19:207-223
  12. Mikkonen K, Vainionpaa LK, Pakarinen AJ, et al. Long-term reproductive endocrine health in young women with epilepsy during puberty[J]. Neurology, 2004,62(3):445-450
  13. Freeman M. The neuroendocrine control of the ovarian cycle of the rat. In KNOBIL E N J. The physiology of reproduction. New York: Raven Press, 1994:613-650
  14. Racine RJ. Modification of seizure activity by electrical stimulation. II. Motor seizure. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol, 1972,32:281-294
  15. Nestorovic N, Lovren M, Sekulic M, et al. Chronic somatostatin treatment affects pituitary gonadotrophs, ovaries and onset of puberty in rats. Life Sci, 2004,74:1359-1373
  16. Borman S M, VanDePol B J, Kao S, et al. A single dose of the ovotoxicant 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide is protective in rat primary ovarian follicles[J]. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 1999,158:244-252
  17. Bauer J, Isojarvi J I, Herzog A G, et al. Reproductive dysfunction in women with epilepsy: recommendations for evaluation and management. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 2002,73:121-125
  18. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Hum Reprod, 2004,19:41-47
  19. Edwards HE, Burnham WM, Ng MM, et al. Limbic seizures alter reproductive function in the female rat. Epilepsia, 1999,40:1370-1377
  20. Kathryn M, Hum, Sofia Megna, et al. The effects of right and left amygdale kindling on the female reproductive system in rats. Epilepsia, 2009, 50:880-886
  21. Sylaja PN, Radhakrishnan K. Problems and pitfalls in developing countries. Epilepsia, 1999,40:1370-1377
  22. Polson D W, Adams J, Wadsworth J, et al. Polycystic ovaries--a common finding in normal women. Lancet, 1988,1(8590):870-872
  23. Morrell M J, Giudice L, Flynn K L, et al. Predictors of ovulatory failure in women with epilepsy. Ann Neurol, 2002,52:704-711
  24. Herzog A G. Disorders of reproduction in patients with epilepsy: primary neurological mechanisms. Seizure, 2008,17:101-110
  25. Otala M, Makinen S, Tuuri T, et al. Effects of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and 17beta-estradiol on human ovarian tissue survival in culture[J]. Fertil Steril, 2004,82 Suppl 3:1077-1085
  26. Boone DL, Yan W, Tsang BK. Identification of a deoxyribonuclease I-like endonuclease in rat granulosa and luteal cell nuclei. Biol Reprod, 1995,53:1057-1065

Cite this Article:

International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.

Search Articles

Issue June 2024

Volume 13, June 2024

Table of Contents

World-wide Delivery is FREE

Share this Issue with Friends:

Submit your Paper