Sunrise and Sunset Azimuths in the Planning of Ancient Chinese Towns

Sunrise and Sunset Azimuths in the Planning of Ancient Chinese Towns

Loading document ...
Loading page ...


Author(s): Amelia Carolina Sparavigna

Download Full PDF Read Complete Article

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.334 532 1202 52-59 Volume 2 - Nov 2013


In the planning of some Chinese towns we can see an evident orientation with the cardinal direction north-south. However, other features reveal a possible orientation with the directions of sunrise and sunset on solstices too, as in the case of Shangdu (Xanadu), the summer capital of Kublai Khan. Here we discuss some other examples of a possible solar orientation in the planning of ancient towns. We will analyse the plans of Xi’an, Khanbalik and Dali.


Satellite Imagery, Orientation, Archaeoastronomy, China


  1. A.C. Sparavigna, A Solar Orientation in the Town-Planning of Xanadu, Archaeogate, 7 June 2013
  2. A.C. Sparavigna, The Chinese Pyramids and the Sun, arXiv:1211.0915 [physics.hist-ph]
  3. Nancy Shatzman Steinhardt, Chinese Imperial City Planning, 1999, University of Hawaii Press, page 153, ISBN 0-8248-2196-3
  5. Peng Yoke Ho, Li, Qi, and Shu: An Introduction to Science and Civilization in China, 2000, Dover Publications, ISBN 0-486-41445-0
  6. Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born c.80–70 BC, died after c.15 BC) was a Roman architect and engineer, active during the 1st century BC. He is the author of the “De Architectura”
  7. Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, The Architecture, Translated by Joseph Gwilt, Priestly and Weale, London, 1826; Vitruvius, The Ten Books on Architecture, Translated by Morris Hicky Morgan, Harvard University Press, 1914
  8. G. Magli, On the Possible Discovery of Precessional Effects in Ancient Astronomy, arXiv:physics/0407108 [physics.hist-ph]
  9. A.C. Sparavigna, The Orientation of Julia Augusta Taurinorum (Torino), arXiv:1206.6062 [physics.pop-ph]
  10. G. Magli, On the Orientation of Roman Towns in Italy, arXiv:physics/0703213 [physics.pop-ph]
  11. A.C. Sparavigna, Ad Orientem: the Orientation of Gothic Cathedrals of France, arXiv:1209.2338 [physics.hist-ph]
  12. F.J. Haverfield, Ancient Town-Planning, Claredon Press, 1913
  14. R. Marazzato and A.C. Sparavigna, Astronomical Image Processing Based on Fractional Calculus: the AstroFracTool, arXiv:0910.4637 [astro-ph.IM]
  15. A.C. Sparavigna, Enhancing the Google Imagery Using a Wavelet Filter, arXiv:1009.1590 [physics.geo-ph]
  23. Alfred Schinz, Cities in China, 1989, Lubrecht and Cramer Ltd., ISBN 3-443-37009-8

Cite this Article:

International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.

Search Articles

Issue June 2023

Volume 12, June 2023

Table of Contents

World-wide Delivery is FREE

Share this Issue with Friends:

Submit your Paper