Assessment of the Existing Tourism-Park-Community Relationships: A Case Study in the Inle Lake Wildlife Sanctuary, Myanmar

Assessment of the Existing Tourism-Park-Community Relationships: A Case Study in the Inle Lake Wildlife Sanctuary, Myanmar

Loading document ...
Loading page ...


Author(s): Yanhong Liu, Ei Sandi Sett

Download Full PDF Read Complete Article

481 1217 24-37 Volume 3 - Feb 2014


Ecotourism is increasingly recognized as a community development tool with significant economic contribution. The ecotourism industry is experiencing increasing popularity as the demand grows for tourism that is environmentally sensitive, informative, and beneficial for local communities. Generally, Myanmar, as in other developing countries, has been promoting its 15 protected areas as ecotourism sites, and there have been only few studies about ecotourism and community development. In this research, Inle Lake Wildlife Sanctuary (ILWS) was selected as a case study in order to assess the current status of ecotourism, also to evaluate the existing tourism-park-community relationships and impacts at this site where it is being promoted as a regional development strategy. Through an evaluation of the existing tourism-park-community relationships, opportunities and constraints are identified. Ecotourism development was found to be at an early stage in the study area, despite only other types of tourism such as nature-based tourism and cultural tourism have developed as a main stream for many years. Tourism activity has not contributed revenues towards conservation to date and as a result tourism has yet to raise funds for management or conservation activities. Socioeconomic benefits for the local community have been limited. Controversial activities will come in the form of increased employment opportunities from the development of ecotourism. This is especially important because many of the threats arising from the need of the local community to use natural resources for their livelihoods. Further recommendations are offered for the policy planners both of the government and the administrative bodies, as well as for the local communities of the Inle Lake. These are followed by the additional suggestions for further studies.


Ecotourism, Tourism, Protected Areas, Park, Community Development, Inle Lake Wildlife Sanctuary, ILWS, Conservation


  1. Akaishi, F, Satake, M, Otaki, M & Tominaga, N., 2006. Surface water quality and information about the environment surrounding Inle Lake in Myanmar. Limnology (2006) 7:57-62. The Japanese Society of Limnology
  2. Alexander, S.E., 2000. Resident attitudes towards conservation and black howler monkeys in Belize: the Community Baboon Sanctuary. Environ. Conserv. 27, 341e350
  3. Allendorf, T.D., Smith, J.L.D., Anderson, D.H., 2007. Residents’ perceptions of Royal Bardia National Park, Nepal. Landscape Urban Plan. 82, 33e40
  4. Berg, Bruce L., 2007. Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences. 6th Edition. San Francisco: Pearson Education
  5. BEWG (Burma Environmental Working Group), 2011. Burma's environment: people, problems, policies. Chiang Mai, Thailand Print
  6. Boo, E, 1990. Ecotourism: The Potential and Pitfalls (Vols 1& 2). Washington, DC: World Wide Fund for Nature
  7. Boyd, S.W, 2000. Tourism, national parks and sustainability. In Butler, R. W. and Boyd, S. W. (Eds.), Tourism and National Parks: Issues and Implications. (pp. 161-186). London: John Wiley & Sons Ltd
  8. Brandon, K.E., Wells, M., 1992. Planning for people and parks e design dilemmas. World Dev. 20, 557e570
  9. Bryman, Alan E. & Burgess Robert G. (Eds.), 1999. Qualitative Research (4 volumes). London: Sage
  10. Brandon, K., 1996. Ecotourism and Conservation: A Review of Key Issues. Biodiversity Series. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Paper #33
  11. C.D Langoya and Catherine Long, 19977/98. Rural Development Forestry Network: Local Communities and Ecotourism Development in Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda
  12. Ceballos-Lascurain, H., 1996. Tourism, ecotourism and protected areas: The state of nature-based tourism around the world and guidelines for its development. Gland: IUCN
  13. Cresswell, C., & MacLaren, F., 2000. Tourism and national parks in emerging tourism countries. In Butler, R. W. and Boyd, S. W. (Eds.), Tourism and National Parks: Issues and Implications. (pp. 283-299). London: John Wiley & Sons Ltd
  14. Dasmann, R., 1984. The relationship between protected areas and indigenous people. In: National Parks, Conservation, and Development: The Role of Protected Areas in Sustaining Society. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp. 667e671
  15. Decrop, A., 1999. Triangulation in Qualitative Tourism Research, Tourism Management, 20 (1999), 157-161
  16. Denzin, N. K., 1970. The Research Act in Sociology. Chicago: Aldine
  17. FAO, 2010. Global FAO Forestry Paper: Forest Resources Assessment 2010
  18. FD, 2010. Forestry in Myanmar published by Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry
  19. Fiallo, E.A., Jacobson, S.K., 1995. Local communities and protected areas: attitudes of rural residents towards conservation and Machalilla National Park, Ecuador. Environ. Conserv. 22, 241e249
  20. Furze, B., De Lacy, T., Birckhead, J., 1996. Culture, Conservation, and Biodiversity: The Social Dimension of Linking Local Level Development and Conservation Through Protected Areas. John Wiley, Chichester
  21. Gillingham, S., Lee, P.C., 1999. The impact of wildlife-related benefits on the conservation attitudes of local people around the Selous Game Reserve, Tanzania. Environ. Conserv. 26, 218e228
  22. Hennie R Boeije, 2010. Analysis in Qualitative Research, University of Utrecht
  23. Hill, C.M., 1998. Conflicting attitudes towards elephants around the Budongo forest reserve, Uganda. Environ. Conserv. 25, 244e250
  24. Holmes, C.M., 2003. The influence of protected area outreach on conservation attitudes and resource use patterns: a case study from western Tanzania. Oryx 37, 305e315
  25. Horwich, RH, 1988. ‘The Community Baboon Sanctuary. An approach to the conservation of private land in Belize’, in: Gradwold, J & Greenberg (eds.), Saving the Tropical Forest, Earthscan
  26. Infield, M., Namara, A., 2001. Community attitudes and behaviour towards conservation: an assessment of a community conservation programme around Lake Mburo National Park, Uganda. Oryx 35, 48e60
  27. Institute of International Development (IID), 2012. Inle Lake Conservation Project Report: A Plan for the Future
  28. Instituto Oikos and BANCA, 2011. Myanmar Protected Areas, Context, Current Status and Challenges
  29. Ismael Abedin Inglemo, 2013. Design and development of a Sustainable Toursim Indicaotr based on human activities analysis in Inle Lake, Myanmar, Social and Behavioral Sciences, 103 (2013) 262-272
  30. Ite, U.E., 1996. Community perceptions of the Cross River National Park, Nigeria. Environ. Conserv. 23, 351e357
  31. Khin Thant, 1967.Fishes and Fishing Gear of Inle Lake. University Press, Rangoon
  32. Koch, E, 1994. ‘Reality or rhetoric? Ecotourism and rural reconstruction in South Africa’
  33. Kyaw Zin Aung Soe, 2012.Livelihood Strategies of the Intha People in the Context of Environmental Degradation of the Inle Lake, Myanmar
  34. Lee, D.N.B., & Snepenger, D.J., 1992. An Ecotourism Assessment of Tortuguero, CostaRica. Annals of Tourism Research, 19(2), 367-370
  35. Lindberg, K., 1991. Policies for Maximizing Nature Tourisms Ecological and Economic Benefits. International Conservation Financing Project Working Paper. USA: World Resources Institute
  36. Lindberg, K., J. Enriquez, and K. Sproule, 1996. Ecotourism questioned: Case studies from Belize. Annals of Tourism Research 23:543–562
  37. Lynam, T., De Jong, W., Sheil, D., Kusumanto, T., Evans, K., 2007. A review of tools for incorporating community knowledge, preferences, and values into decision making in natural resources management. Ecology and Society 12 (1), 5. URL: http://www. art5/
  38. Machlis, G.E., Tichnell, D.L., 1985. The State of the World’s Parks: An International Assessment for Resource Management, Policy, and Research. Westview Press, Boulder, CO
  39. Mannigel, E., 2008. Integrating parks and people: how does participation work in protected area management? Soc. Natur. Resour. 21, 498e511
  40. Micheal J.Stone, 2002. Ecotourism & Community Development: Case Studies from Hainan, China, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada
  41. Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry (MOECAF), 2010. Action Plan on Sustainability of Inle Lake and Environmental Conservation
  42. Ministry of Hotel and Tourism (MOHT), 2013. Tourism Master Plan, 2013-2020, Final Draft Report, June 2013
  43. Mitchell, R.E., & Reid, D.G., 2001. Community Integraton: Island Tourism in Peru. Annals of Tourism Research, 28(1), 113-139
  44. Myanmar’s National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, 2011
  45. Myint Maung Maung, 1984. Inle. Yangon: Sar Pay Beik Man Press
  46. Myint Su and Alan D. Jassby, 2005. Inle: A Large Myanmar Lake in Transition
  47. Nepal, S.K., 2000. Tourism in Protected Areas: The Nepalese Himalaya. Annals of Tourism Research, 27(3), 661-681
  48. Newmark, W.D., Leonard, N.L., Sariko, H.I., Gamassa, D.G.M., 1993. Conservation attitudes of local people living adjacent to 5 protected areas in Tanzania. Biol. Conserv. 63, 177e183
  49. Offutt, M., 1992, ‘Tourism as a conservation strategy in the Nyungwe Forest Reserve, Rwanda’, IUCN/WCMC, Cambridge
  50. Parry, D., Campbell, B., 1992. Attitudes of rural communities to animal wildlife and its utilization in Chobe Enclave and Mababe Depression, Botswana. Environ. Conserv. 19, 245e252
  51. Place, S., 1991. Nature tourism and rural development in Tortuguero. Annals of Tourism Research 18:186–201
  52. Ross, S. and G. Wall., 1999. Ecotourism: Towards Congruence Between Theory and Practice. Tourism Management 20(1): 123–132
  53. Scheyvens, R., 1999. Ecotourism and the empowerment of local communities. Tourism Management, 20(1999), 245-249
  54. Sidle, R, Ziegler, A D & Vogler, J B., 2007. Contemporary changes in open water surface area of Lake Inle, Myanmar. Sustain Sci (2007) 2:55-65
  55. Stern, M., 2008. The power of trust: toward a theory of local opposition to neighboring protected areas. Soc. Natur. Resour. 21, 859e875
  56. Struhsaker, T.T., Struhsaker, P.J., Siex, K.S., 2005. Conserving Africa’s rain forests: problems in protected areas and possible solutions. Biol. Conserv.123 (1), 45e54
  57. The New Light of Myanmar, 2011. “Water flow of Inlay Lake contributes much towards socio-economic life of local people”, The New Light of Myanmar on Monday, 27thJune, p.5
  58. Thi Dar Win, 1996. Floating Island Agriculture (Ye-Chan) of Inle Lake. M.A. Thesis, Department of Geography, University of Yangon, Yangon
  59. UNESCO, Bangkok, Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education, 2008. Impact: the effects of tourism on culture and the environment in Asia and the Pacific: alleviating poverty and protecting cultural and natural heritage through community-based ecotourism in Luang Namtha, Lao PDR. Bangkok, Thailand. Print
  60. Walpole, M.J., & Goodwin, H.J., 2000. Local Economic Impacts of Dragon Tourism in Indonesia, Annals of Tourism Research, 27(3), 559-576
  61. Wang, X., 1993. The Increasing Impact of Tourism on Protected Areas in China. Contours, 6(3/4), 38-43
  62. Weladji, R.B., Moe, S.R., Vedeld, P., 2003. Stakeholder attitudes towards wildlife policy and the Benoue Wildlife Conservation area, North Cameroon. Environ.Conserv. 30

Cite this Article:

International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.

Search Articles

Issue June 2023

Volume 12, June 2023

Table of Contents

World-wide Delivery is FREE

Share this Issue with Friends:

Submit your Paper