Sources Identification and Apportionment of Atmospheric Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) using PCA/APCS Receptor Model in an Urban Settlement of Benin City Southern, Nigeria

Sources Identification and Apportionment of Atmospheric Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) using PCA/APCS Receptor Model in an Urban Settlement of Benin City Southern, Nigeria

Loading document ...
Loading page ...


Author(s): E. G. Olumayede

Download Full PDF Read Complete Article

554 1118 86-95 Volume 3 - Apr 2014


Ambient air Volatile Organic Compounds in Benin City was evaluated for their concentrations using active sampling methods, with the objective of determine the mass contributions of the different sources. Air samples were collected at a human breathing height of 1.5 meters and from nine locations comprising industrial, residential and commercial areas with heavy traffic on a four hourly basis using active sampler at flow rate of 0.51min-1. The sampling periods cover both dry and wet seasons. Collected samples were desorbed and analyzed for volatile organic compounds using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. The concentrations of analytes were read from the calibration graph, which was done with standard solution prepared externally. The data of ambient VOCs analysis were subjected to statistical analysis; correlation analysis, factor analysis, principal component analysis/absolute principal component scores (PCA/APCS) model. The average concentrations of the ambient Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) in the studied city exhibit higher concentrations in dry season months. The results obtained reveal negative or weak correlation coefficients for most Volatile Organic Compounds species, an indication of importance of other VOCs sources in addition to exhaust emission. The results from the PCA/APCS receptor modelling showed that during the dry season, the highest contribution of 53% comes from vehicular emission in the studied area. Meanwhile, evaporative emission contributes the highest during the wet season with 35% for the same locations. High correlation coefficient (R2 >0.8) between the measured and predicted values suggested that PCA/APCS model is suitable for estimation of sources of VOCs in ambient air.


Source Identification, Apportionment, Volatile Organic Compounds, Ambient air


  1. Abudl Raheem A.M.O, Adekola, F.A, Obioh, I.O, (2008) The seasonal variation of Sulphur dioxide and Nitrogen Oxides in Two Nigerian Cities Environmetal Model Assessment DOI10.1007/s10666-008-9142-x
  2. ASTM(1988) Method D 3686 – 84: Standard practice for sampling atmospheres to collect organic compound vapours. Annual book of ASTM standards 11,(03): 234 – 240
  3. Baumbach, G.; Vogt, U.; Hein, K.R.G.; Oluwole, A.F.; Ogunsola, O.J.; Olaniyi, H.B.; Akeredolu, F.A (1995) Air pollution in a typical tropical city with high traffic density- results of measurement in Lagos, Nigeria. The Science of Total Environment, 169, 25
  4. Barletta, B.; Meinordi, S.; Rowland, S.F.; Chan, C.Y., Wang, X., Zou, S., Chan, L.Y., and Blake, D.R (2005) VOCs in 43 Chinese Cities. Atmospheric Environment 39, 5979 – 5990
  5. Brown, S.G. Frankel, A. Hafner, H.R. (2007) Source apportionment of VOCs in the Los Angeles area using positive matrix factorization, Atmos. Environ. 41, 227–237
  6. Chan, C.C; Özkaynak H, Spengler JD, Sheldon L. (1991) Driver Exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds, CO, Ozone, and NO2 under Different Driving Conditions. Environ Sci Technol ; 25: 964-972
  7. Chameides W.L., Fehsenfeld F., Rodgers M.O., Cardelino C., Matinez J., Parrish D., Lonnemans W., Lawson D.R., Rasmussen R.A., Zimmerman P., Greenberg J.,Middleton P. and Wang T., (1992) Ozone precursor relationships in the ambient atmosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research, 97, 6037-6055
  8. Cooper, S.D; Raymer J.H; Pellizzari, E.D.; Thomas, K.W(1995) The Identification of Polar Organic Compounds Found in Consumer Products and Their Toxicological Properties. Journal of Exposure, Analytical, Environmental and Epidemiology; 5: 57-75
  9. Ekop,. O.B.; Udontong, I.R (2004) Air quality precipitation and corrosion studies of MBO local government area, Nigerian International Journal of Environment Issues 2 (1-2) 3
  10. Fellin P, Otson R.( 1994) Assessment of the Influence of Climatic Factors on Concentration Levels of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Canadian Homes. Atmospheric Environment; 28: 3581-3586
  11. Guo, H. So, K.L. Simpson, I.J. Barletta, B. Meidarni, S. Blake, D.R. (2007) C1–C8 volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere of Hong Kong: overview of atmospheric processing and source apportionment, Atmos. Environ. 41; 1456–1472
  12. Guo, H.,Wang, T., Louie, P.K.K. (2004)Source apportionment of ambient non-methane hydrocarbons in Hong Kong: Application of a principal component analysis/ absolute principal component scores (PCA/APCS) receptor model, Environ. Pollut. 129 489–498
  13. Guo, H.; Wang, T.. Blake, D.R Simpson, I.J. Kwok, Y.H. Li, Y.S. (2006) Regional and local contributions to ambient non-methane volatile organic compounds at a polluted rural/coastal site in Pearl River Delta, China, Atmos. Environ. 40, 2345–2359
  14. Han, X and Naeher, L.P (2006) A Review of Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure Assessment Studies in the Developing World. Environmental International, 32(1), 106-120
  15. Heeb N V, Forss A M, Bach C, Reimann S, Herzog A, J¨ackle H W, 2000. A comparison of benzene, toluene and C2- benzenes mixing ratios in automotive exhaust and in the suburban atmosphere during the introduction of catalytic converter technology to the Swiss Car Fleet. Atmospheric Environment, 34(19): 3103–3116
  16. Hellen, H. Hakola, H. Pirjola, L. Laurila, T. Pystynen, K.-H. (2006) Ambient air concentrations, source profiles, and source apportionment of 71 different C2–C10 volatile organic compounds in urban and residential areas of Finland, Environ. Sci. Technol. 40 103–108
  17. Hoque, R.R; Khillare, P.S; Agerwal, T; Shridhar, V; Balachandran, S (2008) Spatial and Temporal variation of BTEX in Urban Atmosphere of Delhi, India. Science of the Total Environment, 392 (1), 30-40
  18. Knöppel H, Schauenburg H. (1989) Screening of Household Products for the Emission of Volatile Organic Compounds. Environment International; 15: 413-418
  19. Lee ,S.C., Chiu, K.F., Zou, S.C Wang Xinming (2002) Volatile Organic Compounds(VOCS) in Urban atmosphere of Hong Kong, Chemosphere 48, 375-382
  20. Na Y, Kim YP, Moon, KC, Moon I, Fung K, (2001) Concentrations of volatile organic compounds in an industrial area of Korea. Atmos. Environ. 35, 2747-2756
  21. NMA(2009) Nigerian Meteorological Agency, Weather Report Bulletin
  22. Monod A, Sive B C, Avino P, Chen T, Blake D R, Sherwood R F 2001. Monoaromatic compounds in ambient air of various cities: a focus on correlations between the xylenes and ethylbenzene. Atmospheric Environment, 35(1): 135– 149
  23. Obioh IB, Oluwole AF, Akeredolu FA (1994) Lead Emissions and Source Strength In Nigeria: 1998 Inventory in Heavy Metals in The Environment. Allen and Nriagu (eds). Proceeding of an international conference, Toronto Canada, 12 september1993 CEP Publishers ISBN 0-905941-51-9, 271-274
  24. Ojiodu, C.C; Okuo,J.M and Olumayede E. G (2013) Spatial and Temporal Variability of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Pollutions in Apapa Industrial Areas in Lagos State, Southwestern, Nigeria. Academia Journal of Environmental Sciences, 1(3), 053-061
  25. Olumayede E.G; Okuo, J.M and Ojiodu, C.C (2013) Source Identifications and Contributions to Volatile Organic Compounds in Atmosphere of two Urban centers of Southwestern Nigeria using Principal Component Analysis. Journal International Environmental Application and Science, 8 (2), 314 – 325
  26. Olumayede E. G.; Okuo,J.M. (2011) Baseline Levels Of Volatile Organic Compounds In Atmosphere Of Two Urban Centres Of Southwestern, Nigeria Intern. Journal of chemical science 4 (1)
  27. Olumayede E.G; Okuo, J.M (2012) Variation Characteristics of Volatile Organic Compounds in Atmosphere of Benin City Polish Journal of Environmental Science 21 (1), 77 – 186
  28. Olson DA, Hammod D, Seila RL, Burke JM, Norris GA, (2009) Spatial gradients and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds near roadways, Atmospheric Environment, 43 , 5647–5653
  29. Sauvage HS, Plaisance H, Locoge N, Wroblewski A, Coddeville R, Galloo JC, (2009) Long term measurement and source apportionment of nonmethane hydrocarbons in three French rural areas, Atmos. Environ. 43 2430–2441
  30. Srivastava, A (2004) Source apportionment of Ambient VOCs in Mumbia City, Atmospheric Environment, 38, 6829 – 6843.
  31. Ulman, M., and Chilmonczy, Z. (2007) Volatile Organic Compounds - Components, Sources, Determination A review, Chemia Analityczna, 52: 173 - 200
  32. Ukpebor, E.E; Sadiku, Y.T.; Ahonkahi, S.I. (2005) Indoor NO2 sampling in a large university campus in Benin City, southern Nigeria, using palmes diffusion tube, Paks. Journal Science of Industrial Research 48 (2) 103-107
  33. Vega, E; Mugica, V; Carmona, E; Valencia, E (2000) Hydrocarbon source apportionment in Mexico City using the chemical balance receptor model. Atoms. Environ. 34, 4121 – 4129
  34. Wallace LA.( 1991) Volatile Organic Chemicals. In the Indoor Air Pollution: A Health Perspective. Samet J and Spengler J, Eds.; John Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore MD, US
  35. Wang,M; Cheng, H; Ding, G et al( 2005) The primary study of measured result of ambient VOCs in Beijing areas. Journal of Applied Meteorological Science, 16(5), 600 – 607
  36. Watson JG, Chow JC, Fujita EM.( 2001) Review of Volatile Organic Compound Source Apportionment by Chemical Mass Balance. Atmospheric Environment 35: 1567-1584
  37. Weisel CP, Lawryk NJ, Lioy PJ.( 1992) Exposure to Emissions from Gasoline within Automobile Cabins. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 2: 79-96
  38. Wixtrom, R. N, Brown S.L. (1992) Individual and Population Exposure to Gasoline. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol 2: 23-78
  39. Zhao, L., Wang, X., He, Q.,Wang, H., Sheng, G., Chan, L.Y., Fu, J., & Blake, D.R. (2004) Exposure to hazardous volatile organic compounds, PM10 and CO while walking along street in urban Guangzhou, china. Atmosphere Environment, 38, 6177- 6184
  40. Zhu JP, Zhang JS, Shaw CY.( 2001) Comparison of Models for Describing Measured VOC Emissions from Wood-based Panels under Dynamic Chamber Test Condition. Chemosphere; 44: 1253-1257

Cite this Article:

International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.

Search Articles

Issue June 2023

Volume 12, June 2023

Table of Contents

World-wide Delivery is FREE

Share this Issue with Friends:

Submit your Paper