Electrochemical Synthesis of Micrometre Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Tubes and their Transformation to Hydroxyapatite Tubes

Electrochemical Synthesis of Micrometre Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Tubes and their Transformation to Hydroxyapatite Tubes

Loading document ...
Loading page ...


Author(s): Gerrard Eddy Jai Poinern, Sridevi Brundavanam, Derek Fawcett

Download Full PDF Read Complete Article

375 917 7-15 Volume 4 - Feb 2015


Amorphous calcium phosphate tube-like structures were formed on magnesium substrates using a straightforward electrochemical process. The effect of voltage, time and the resulting hydrogen gas evolution were found to be responsible for sculpturing the tube-like structures covering the entire substrate surface. Scanning electron microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy was used to quantify the size, shape, structure and composition of the tube-like structures. Microscopy analysis was used to develop a model to describe the mechanism behind the formation of the tube-like structures. Also investigated was a hydrothermal technique used to convert the amorphous calcium phosphate structures into hydroxyapatite. Both X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy were used to confirm the effectiveness of the conversion process.


Electrochemical synthesis, amorphous calcium phosphate, microstructures


  1. Dorozhkin SV. Nano-dimensional and nano-crystalline apatite’s and other calcium orthophosphates in biological engineering, biology and medicine. Materials, 2009; 2: 1975-2045 http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma2041975
  2. Zhao J, Liu Y, Sun WB and Zhang H, Amorphous calcium phosphate and its application in dentistry, Chemistry Central Journal, 2011; 5(40): 1-7 http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1752-153x-5-40
  3. Boskey AL, Amorphous Calcium Phosphate: The Contention of Bone, J. Dental. Research, 1997; 76 (8): 1433-1436 http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00220345970760080501
  4. Betts F, Blumenthal NC, Posner AS, Becker GL, Lehninger AL: Atomic structure of intracellular amorphous calcium phosphate deposits. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1975; 72: 2088-2090 http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.72.6.2088
  5. Termine JD, Eanes ED: Comparative chemistry of amorphous and apatetic calcium phosphate preparations. Calcif. Tissue Res. 1972; 10: 171-197 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf02012548
  6. Eanes ED, Termine JD, and Nylen MU. An electron microscopic study of the formation of amorphous calcium phosphate and its transformation to crystalline apatite. Calcif. Tissue Res. 1973; 12:143-158 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf02013730
  7. Li YB, Li DX, Weng WJ. Amorphous calcium phosphate and its biomedical application. J. Inorgan. Mater, 2007; 22: 775-782
  8. Poinern GEJ, Brundavanam R, Le X, Nicholls PK, Cake MA, Fawcett D. The synthesis, characterisation and in vivo study of a bioceramic for potential tissue regeneration applications. Scientific Reports, 2014; 4, 6235: 1-9 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep06235
  9. Dorozhkin SV. Calcium Orthophosphates as Bioceramics: State of the Art. J. Funct. Biomater. 2010; 1: 22-107 http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jfb1010022
  10. Zhao J, Liu Y, Sun WB and Yang X. First detection, characterization, and application of amorphous calcium phosphate in dentistry. Journal of Dental Sciences, 2012; 7: 316-323 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jds.2012.09.001
  11. Boskey AL, Posner AS. Magnesium stabilization of amorphous calcium phosphate: a kinetic study. Mater. Res. Bull. 1974; 9: 907-916 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0025-5408(74)90169-x
  12. Beniash E, Metzler RA, Lam RS, Gilbert PU. Transient amorphous calcium phosphate in forming enamel. J Struct Biol 2009; 166: 133-143 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsb.2009.04.002
  13. Wilt FH. Developmental biology meets material science: Morphogenesis of biomineralized structures. Development Biology, 2005; 280: 15-25 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.01.019
  14. Wang L, Nancollas GH. Dynamics of biomineralization and biodemineralization. Met. Ions. Life. Sci. 2010; 4: 413-456 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470986325.ch13
  15. Gray-Munro JE & Strong M. The mechanism of deposition of calcium phosphate coatings from solution onto magnesium alloy AZ31. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 2008; DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.32107 12 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.32107

Cite this Article:

International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.

Search Articles

Issue June 2024

Volume 13, June 2024

Table of Contents

World-wide Delivery is FREE

Share this Issue with Friends:

Submit your Paper