A review was undertaken to obtain the related research results and facts on production, husbandry and sustainability of free-range poultry production systems in Ethiopia with the aim of delivering synthesized and summarized information to the beneficiaries. Poultry production has a major role in poverty alleviation by means of income generation and household food security. Free-range chicken production is characterized by low input and output scavenging, with minimal investment in housing, feeding, watering and health care, and hence weak biosecurity, high off take rates and high mortality rates. The production system in Ethiopia is extensive and dominated by indigenous chickens that exhibit remarkable adaptation to local environments. Generally, it is concluded that, the free-range chicken production system offers many people the opportunity to improve their livelihoods, suggesting that improvement of chicken breeding, production environment, farmersâ€™ access to inputs and markets needs to focus on the free-range chicken production system.
Free-range Poultry, Husbandry, Production, Sustainability
- Abdelqader, A., Wollny, C. B. A. and Gauly, M., 2007. Characterization of local chicken production systems and their potential under different levels of management practice in Jordan, Tropical Animal Health and Production, 39, 155-164 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-007-9000-x
- Abubakar, M.B, A.G. Ambali and T. Tamjdo.2007. Rural Chicken Production: Effects of Gender on Ownership, and Management Responsibilities in Some Parts of Nigeria and Cameroon. International Journal of Poultry Science 6 (6): 413-416. http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/ijps.2007.413.416
- Alders R.2004. Poultry for profit and pleasure. FAO Diversification Booklet 3. Rome.
- Alders RG, Pym RAE. 2009. Village poultry: still important to millions, eight thousand years after domestication. Worldâ€™s Poult. Sci. J., 65:181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0043933909000117
- Alemu, D. Alemu, T. Degefe, S. Ferede, S. Nzietcheung, D. Roy, 2008. Overview and Background Paper on Ethiopia's Poultry Sector: Relevance for HPAI Research in Ethiopia. DFID Pro-poor HPAI Risk Reduction Strategies Project Africa/Indonesia Region Report No. 1
- Ayele, G. Ayele, D. Asare-Marfo, E. Birol, D. Roy. 2009. Investigating the Role of Poultry in Livelihoods and the Impact of HPAI in Ethiopia. Controlling Avian Flu and Protecting People's Livelihoods in Africa and Indonesia. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) with the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and Royal Veterinary College (RVC)
- Bradley FA.1992. A historical review of women's contributions to poultry production and the implications for poultry development process. In: Proceedings of the 19th Worldâ€™s Poultry Congress, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. pp. 693-696.
- Branckaert, R.D.S. and GuÃ©ye. 1999. FAOâ€™s Programme for Support to family poultry production. In: Proceedings workshop on poultry as a tool in poverty eradication and promotion of gender equality held March 22 to 26, 1999. Denmark.
- CSA (Central Statistical Agency). 2005. Agricultural Sample Survey 2004/05. Central Statistical Authority No. 2. Report on Livestock and livestock characteristics. Stat. Bull. P. 331.
- CSA (Central Statistical Agency). 2011 Agricultural sample survey 2010/11, 2: statistical bulletin 505. Report on livestock and livestock characteristics (prevent peasant holdings), Addis Ababa, February 2011.21.
- CSA (Central Statistical Agency). 2013. Agricultural sample survey 2012/13. Report on livestock and livestock characteristics, Statistical Bulletin Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 2:570.
- Dana, N. 2011. Breeding programs for indigenous chicken of Ethiopia. PhD thesis. Wageningen, the Netherlands: Wageningen University.
- Desalew Tadesse, Harpal Singh, Ashenafi Mengistu, Wondimeneh Esatu and Tadelle Dessie. 2013. Study on management practices and marketing systems of village chicken in East Shewa, Ethiopia
- Dessie, T., Esatu, W., Waaij, L.V., Zegeye, F., gizaw, S., Mwai, O. and van Arendonk, J. 2013. Village chicken production in the central and western highlands of Ethiopia: characteristics and strategies for improvement. Nairobi, Kenya: International livestock Research institute.
- FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 2004. Egg marketing. A guide for the production and sale of eggs. FAO, Rome, Italy.
- FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United State Nations). 1997. Guidelines for the inclusion of improved household poultry production. Diversification component of the special programme for food security, Rome. pp: 86.
- Fisseha Moges, Abera Mellesse and Tadelle Dessie. 2010. Assessment of village chicken production system and evaluation of the productive and reproductive performance of local chicken ecotype in Bure district, North West Ethiopia. African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol. 5(13), pp. 1739-1748
- Gezahegn, A. and Rich, K.M. 2010. Poultry value chains and HPAI in Ethiopia. Africa/Indonesia Team Working Paper 25. Washington, DC, USA: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Gizaw, S., Awigchew, K. and Yami, A. 2011. A practical guide for village-based sheep and goat cooperative breeding scheme. ESGPIP Technical Bulletin 42. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: ESGPIP.
- Glatz Phil and Yingjun. 2004. Developing free-range animal production systems. A report for the Australian Government Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation. Pp 4-23
- Gondwe, T.N.P., 2004. Characterization of local chicken in low input-low output production systems: is there scope for appropriate production and breeding strategies in Malawi? PhD Thesis. Georg-August-UniversitÃ¤t GÃ¶ttingen, Germany.
- Gueye, E.F. 1998. Village egg and fowl meat production in Africa, Worldâ€™s Poultry Science Journal, 54, 73-86 http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/wps19980007
- Halima . H.2007. Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization of Indigenous Chicken Populations in Northwest Ethiopia. PhD Thesis; University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa. P. 186.
- Hellin J, Griffith A, Mike A. 2005. Mapping the market: Market-literacy for agricultural research & policy to tackle rural poverty in Africa. In: Proceedings of an International Seminar, 28th February 1st March 2005, Westminster, London, UK, pp. 110-150.
- Huque QME, Paul DC. 2001. Strategies for family poultry production with special reference to women participation. Paper presented in 1st SAARC Poultry Conference held on 24âˆ’26, September. Pune, India.www.cipav.org.co/lrrd/lrrd9/3/bang931.htm.
- Jens Christian R, Anders P, Charlotte V, Ainsh MC, Lone F. 2004. Keeping Village Poultry. A technical manual for small-scale poultry production. Copenhagen, Denmark.
- Kitalyi A.1998. Village chicken production systems in rural Africa. Households food and gender issues. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome Italy. P.81
- Kusina J, Kusina NT, Mhlanga J. 2000. A Survey on Village Chicken Losses: Causes and Solutions as perceived by farmers in communal area of Zimbabwe. Accessed on 27th August, 2007.
- Lwesya H, Phoya RKD, Safalaoh ACL, Gondwe TNP. 2004. Rearing chicks in enclosures under village conditions: effect on growth and reproductive performance of hens. Livestock Res. Rural Dev., 16: 11.
- Mandal MK, Khandekar N, Khandekar P. 2006. Backyard poultry farming in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh, India: an analysis. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., 18. Art. # 7. http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd18/7/mand18101.htm
- Mapiye, C. and S. Sibanda. 2005. Constraints and opportunities of village chicken production systems in the smallholder sector of Rushinga District of Zimbabwe. Livestock Res. Rural Dev. 17 (10). http://www.cipav.org.co/lrrd/lrrd17/10/mapi17115.htm. Acessed: 04/1l/2005.
- Melesse A, Negesse T. 2009. Study on the characterization of local chickens found in Southern Ethiopia. In: Proceedings of Annual Research Review Workshop, Hawassa University, Awassa, Ethiopia, May 16-17. Pp.1-15.
- Mengesha M, Tamir B, Dessie T. 2011. Village Chicken Constraints and Traditional Management Practices in Jamma District, South Wollo, Ethiopia. Livestock Research for Rural Development. Volume 23, Article #37. Retrieved February 5, 2013, from http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd23/2/meng23037.htm.
- Mengesha M, Tamir B, Dessie T. 2012. Village Chicken Constraints and Traditional Management Practices in Jamma District, South W ollo, Ethiopia. Livestock Research for Rural Development. Volume 23, Article #37. Retrieved February 5, 2013, from http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd23/2/meng23037.htm.
- Mlozi MRS, Kakengi AVM, Minga UM, Mtambo AM, Olsen JE. 2003. Marketing of free range local chicken in Morogoro and Kilosa urban markets, Tanzania. Livestock Res. Rural Dev., 15:2.
- Moges F, Abera M, Tadelle D. 2010. Assessment of village chicken production system and evaluation of the productive and reproductive performance of local chicken ecotype in Bure district, North West Ethiopia. Afr. J. Agric. Res. 5(13):1739-1748.
- Muchadeyi FC, Sibanda S, Kusina NT, Kusina J, Makuza S. 2004. The village chicken production system in Rushinga District of Zimbabwe. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., 16. Art. # 6.
- Njue, S. W., Kasiiti, J. L. & Gacheru, S. G.2006. Assessing the economic impact of commercial poultryfeeds supplementation and vaccination against Newcastle disease in local Chicken in Kenya. Proceedings of afinal research coordination meeting organized by the Joint FAO/ International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) held in Vienna, 24â€“28 May 2004.
- Ochieng Justus, George Owuor, Bockline Omedo Bebe. 2013. Management practices and challenges in smallholder indigenous chicken production in Western Kenya. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics Vol. 114 No. 1 (2013) 51â€“58
- Pedersen CV.2002. Production of semi-scavenging chickens in Zimbabwe. Ph.D Thesis. Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
- Riise JC, Permin A, Kryger KN.2004. Strategies for developing family poultry production at village level. Experiences from West Africa and Asia. Network for Smallholder Poultry Development, Dyrlaegevej Frederiksberg, Denmark. 2:1870. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/wps200437
- Robert JA. 1992 The scavenging feed resource base in assessment of the productivity of scavenging chickens. Newcastle disease in village chickens, control with thermo stable vaccine. In: Proceedings of ACIAR, No. 39, Canberra, Australia. pp. 29-32.
- Safalaoh ACL. 2001. Village Chicken Upgrading Programme in Malawi.Worldâ€™s Poult. Sci. J., 57: 179âˆ’188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/wps20010013
- Salam KR. 2005. Improvement of village chicken production in a mixed (chicken-ram) farming system in Burkina Faso. Ph.D Thesis. Wageningen Institute of Animal Sciences, Animal Nutrition Group, Wageningen University, the Netherlands.
- Samson L, Endalew B. 2010. Survey on Village Based Chicken Production and Utilization System in Mid Rift Valley of Oromia, Ethiopia. Global Vet., 5 (4): 198-203.
- Serkalem T, Hagos A, Zeleke A. 2005. Sero-prevalence study of Newcastle disease in local chickens in central Ethiopia. Inter. J. Appl.Res. Vet. Med., 3:1.
- Sonaiya EB, Swan SEJ. 2005. Small-scale poultry production, technical guide manual. FAO Animal Production and Health 1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome.
- Sonaiya, E.B. 1990. Toward sustainable poultry production in Africa. In: Paper presented at the FAO expert consultation on strategies for sustainable animal agriculture in developing countries, Rome, Italy.
- Tadelle D, Million T, Alemu Y, Peters K. 2003. Village chicken production systems in Ethiopia: Use patterns and performance valuation and chicken products and socio-economic functions of chicken.
- Tadelle D, Million T, Alemu Y, Peters KJ. 2003b. Village chicken production systems in Ethiopia: 2. Use patterns and performance valuation and chicken products and socio-economic functions of chicken; Livestock Research for Rural Development (15) 1. Retrieved February 5, 2013, from http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd15/1/tadeb151.htm.
- Tadelle D, Million T, Alemu Y, Peters KJ. 2003a. Village chicken production systems in Ethiopia: 1. Flock characteristics and performance; Livestock Research for Rural Development (15) 1.Retrieved February 5, 2013, fromhttp://www.lrrd.org/lrrd15/1/tadea151.htm.
- Tadelle D. 2002. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of chicken ecotypes in Ethiopia. PhD thesis. Humboldt University, Germany. 208 pp.
- Tadelle Dessie, Ogle B. 2001. Village poultry production system in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 33:521-537. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/a:1012740832558
- Takele T, Oli W. 2011. Uses and flock management practices of scavenging chickens in W olaita Zone of southern Ethiopia. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 44:537-544. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-011-9933-y
- Teketel Forsido. 1986. Studies on the meat production potential of some local strains of chicken in Ethiopia. Ph.D Thesis. J.L.University of Giessen, Germany. 210 p.
- USAID (United States Agency for International Development). 2010. Partnership for safe poultry in Kenya (PSPK) program: Value chain analysis of poultry in Ethiopia. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: USAID.
- Wilson RT. 2010. Poultry production and performance in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. World's Poult. Sci. J. 66:441-454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0043933910000528
Cite this Article:
International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.