Relationship Between Weather Parameters and Female Mosquito Abundance and Distribution in Makurdi - a Mosquito Infested Area in North Central Nigeria

Relationship Between Weather Parameters and Female Mosquito Abundance and Distribution in Makurdi - a Mosquito Infested Area in North Central Nigeria

Loading document ...
Loading page ...


Author(s): M. M. Manyi, J. T. Akaahan, E.T. Azua

Download Full PDF Read Complete Article

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.733 536 1004 44-54 Volume 4 - Jun 2015


The relationship between weather parameters and female mosquito populations/distribution were determined in Makurdi from four localities over a 12-month period. Data on temperature, rainfall and relative humidity were obtained using the expertise of the Nigerian Meteorological Agency at the Tactical Air Command headquarters in Makurdi. Adult female mosquitoes (4,320), comprising anophelines and culicines were caught indoors and identified using standard keys and procedures. 1,040 (24.1%) were Anopheles gambiae sl; 641 (14.8%) were Aonpheles funestus; 2,418 (56.0%) were Culex quinquefasciatus while 221(5.1%) were ‘unidentified’ Anopheles species. Mean atmospheric temperature was high throughout the study period with peaks in February and March, before the steady rains in April. Mean temperature in the hottest period (February to April) ranged from 35.20C - 38.20C. Relative humidity was proportional to rainfall and ranged from 44% - 86%. Wet seasons had more mosquito vectors than the dry season. Pearsons’s correlation showed a significant negative relationship (P < 0.05) between temperature and the abundance and distribution of mosquitoes for all the other species except for Anopheles funestus (P > 0.05). Similarly, there were significant positive correlations (P < 0.05) between both rainfall and relative humidity, and the abundance of the other mosquito species in the study area excluding Anopheles funestus (P > 0.05). Regression showed strong linear relationships (R2 = 0.557, 0.549, and 0.637 for temperature, rainfall and humidity respectively) between weather parameters and mosquito population. This work provides baseline data on mosquito vector relationship with weather factors required for vector population control interventions in Makurdi.


Humidity, Rainfall, Temperature, Female Mosquitoes, Makurdi, Nigeria


  1. Abeyasingha, R.R., Yapabanadara, A.M., Kusumawathie, P.H..D., Perera, D., Peiris, B.S.L., Hewavitharane, H.M.P. and Harishchandra, R.D.J. (2009). Guidelines for Entomological Surveillance of Malaria Vectors in Sri Lanka. Anti-Malaria Campaign. Pp 62-67.
  2. Aigbodion, F. I. and Nnoka, H. C. (2008). A Comparative study of the activities of Anopheles gambiae, Culex quinque-fasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) by Pyrethrum spray collection in Benin City, Nigeria. Bioscience Research Communications, 20(3): 147-151.
  3. Ayanda, O. I. (2009) Relative Abundance of Adult Female Anopheline Mosquitoes in Ugah, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology, 1(1): 005-008.
  4. Federal Republic of Nigeria Official Gazette. (2007). Legal Notice on Publication of the
  5. Details of the Breakdown of the National and State Provisional Totals, 2006 Census, 94:
  6. B175-B198.
  7. Gajanana, A., Rajendran, R., and Samuel, P.P. (1997). Japanese encephalitis in South Arcot district, Tamil Nadu, India. A three year longitudinal study of vector abundance and infection frequency, Journal of Medical Entomology, 34(6): 651-659.
  8. Gillies, M.T. and Coetzee, M. (1987). A supplement to the Anophelinae of Africa, South of
  9. the Sahara. Johannesburg: Sought African Institute of Medical Research. 143Pp.
  10. Githeko, A.K., Lindsay, S.W., Confalonieri, U. E and Patz, J.A. (2000). Climate Change and Vector-Borne Diseases: A regional Analysis. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78(9): 1136-1147
  11. Goodman, D.S., Orelus, J.N., Roberts, J.M., Lammie, P.I., Streit, T.G. (2003). PCR and mosquito dissection as tools to monitor filarial infection levels following mass treatment, Filaria Journal, 2: Pp11.
  12. Kasili, S., Oyieke, F., Wamae, C and Mbogo, C. (2009). Seasonal Changes of Infectivity Rates of Bancroftian Filariasis Vectors in Coast Province, Kenya. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, 46: 219-224.
  13. Laumann, V. (2010). Environmental Strategies to replace DDT and control Malaria. 2nd extended edition: Pestizid Aktions-Netzwerk (PAN) e.V. 40Pp.
  14. Masaninga, F., Daniel, C., Nkhuwa, W., Fastone, M., Goma, C.S., Chanda, E., Kamuliwo, M., Kawesha, E.C., Siziya, S. and Babaniyi, O. (2012). Mosquito biting and malaria situation in an urban setting in Zambia. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology, 4(9): 261 – 269.
  15. Mwngangi, J.M., Muturi, E.J. and Mbogo, C.M. (2009). Seasonal Mosquito larval Abundance and Composition in Kibwezi, lower eastern Kenya, Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, 46(10): 65-71.
  16. NEEF. (2008). National Environmental Education Foundation: Weather, Climate and Mosquitoes. Earth Gauge, 2Pp.
  17. NIAID. (2007). National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.Understanding Malaria.
  18. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. National Institute of Heath Pulication,
  19. No. 07-7139. 32 Pp.
  20. NMA. (2011). Nigerian Meteorological Agency, Tactical Air Command Head Quarters Makurdi.
  21. Nyagba, J. L. (1995). The geography of Benue State. In: A Benue Compendium. Denga, D. I. (ed) Calabar, Rapid Educational Publishers Ltd. Pp 85 – 97.
  22. Oguoma, V.M., Nwaorgu, O.C., Mbanefo, E.C., Ikpeze, O.O., Umeh, J.M., Eneanya, C.I. and Ekwunife, C.A. (2010).
  23. Species Composition of Anopheles mosquitoes in three villages of Uratta Owerri north Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Reviews in Infection, 1(4): 192-196.
  24. Okogun, G. R.A., Nwoke, B.E.B., Okere, A. N., Anosike, J. C. and Esekhegbe, A. C. (2003). Epidemiological Implications of preferences of Breeding sites of mosquito species in Mid-Western Nigeria. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 10: 217 – 222.
  25. Omudu, E. A. and Ochoga, J. O. (2011). Clinical epidemiology of lymphatic filariasis and community practices and perceptions amongst the Ado people of Benue State, Nigeria. African Journal of Infectious Diseases, 5(2):4–53.
  26. Shililu, J. I., Maier, W. A. Seitz, H. M. and Orago, A. S. (1998). Seasonal density, sporozoite rates and entomological inoculation rates of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus in a high-altitude sugarcane growing zone in Western Kenya. Tropical Medicine and International Health, 3(9): 706 – 710.
  27. Service, M.W. (2012). Medical Entomology for Students. 5 th edn, Cambridge University Press, New York. 303Pp.
  28. Udo, K. R. (1981). Geographical Regions of Nigeria. London, Morrison and Gibb Ltd. Pp 133 – 149.
  29. Ungureanu, E.M. (1972). Methods for Dissecting Dry Insects and Insects Preserved in Fixative Solutions or by Refrigeration. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 47: 239-244.
  30. Uttah, E.C. and Uttah, C. (2009). Human settlement and behavioual triggers of sustained endemic filariasis in Eastern Nigeria. Paper presented at the 2009 Annual Conference of Parasitology and Public Health Society of Nigeria hosted at Usman Danfodio University Sokoto, Nigeria.
  31. Uttah, E. C., Ibe, D. and Woken, G. N. (2013a). Filariasis control in Coastal Nigeria: Predictive.
  32. World Health Organization, (1975). Manual on Practical entomology in Malaria. Part I and II.
  33. Methods and Techniques. World Health Organization Offset Publication 13, Geneva, Switzerland. Pp 160.
  34. World Health Organisation (2000). World Health Organization Expert Committee on Malaria. Technical Report Series. 892 Geneva.

Cite this Article:

International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.

Search Articles

Issue June 2023

Volume 12, June 2023

Table of Contents

World-wide Delivery is FREE

Share this Issue with Friends:

Submit your Paper