Turbidity Removal Efficiency of Clay and a Synthetic af-PACl Polymer of Magnesium Hydroxide in AMD Treatment

Turbidity Removal Efficiency of Clay and a Synthetic af-PACl Polymer of Magnesium Hydroxide in AMD Treatment

Loading document ...
Loading page ...


Author(s): Oupa Ntwampe, F.B. Waanders, E. Fosso-Kankeu, Bunt J.R.

Download Full PDF Read Complete Article

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.757 274 871 88-104 Volume 4 - Sep 2015


In this study five 200 mL acid mine drainage (AMD) samples were treated with 5g clay (bentonite) alone or mixed with 0.1 M Al3+ in AlCl3 and 0.1 M Mg 2+ in Mg(OH)2 polymer. The AMD samples were poured into five 500 mL glass beakers and dosed with 5 g/L of clay in a jar test, (250 rpm for 2 minutes and reduced to 100 rpm for 10 minutes) and the samples were allowed to settle for 1 hour after which the pH, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO) and oxidation reduction potential (ORP) were measured. In the next step, 200 mL of the supernatant was poured into five 500 mL glass beakers and dosed with a af-PACl (acid-free polyaluminiumchloride) polymer of 0.1 M Al3+ in AlCl3, mixed with 0.1 M Mg2+ in Mg(OH)2, and treated in a similar manner in a jar test, settled for 1 hour, after which similar measurements were conducted, depicted as experiment (A). Another similar set of experiments was conducted, where the AMD sample was dosed with a polymer of 5 g of clay, 0.1 M Al3+ in AlCl3 and 0.1 M Mg(OH)2 in a jar test. Similar measurements were conducted after 1 hour of settling, depicted as experiment (B). The results showed that the addition of the clay to the AMD sample as a reagent (A) or a polymeric component (B) does not affect the turbidity removal, but the rate of hydrolysis (pH changing pattern) and ORP are affected. The experimental results showed that there is a correlation between the ORP and the pH, and also showed that oxidation takes place during the destabilization-hydrolysis process. The results also showed that the conductivity plays a role during the destabilization-hydrolysis process, i.e. correlation between changing rate of the conductivity and the turbidity.


mixing, disperse, turbiditymultivalent, pH, turbidity


  1. 1) Aboulhassan, M.A. Souabi, S. Yaacoubi, A. and Baudu, M., 2006. Removal of surfactant from industrial wastewaters by coagulation flocculation process, Interface Journal of Environmental Science & Technology, 3(4) 327-336.
  2. 2) Amuda, O.S, Amoo, A and Ajayi, O.O., 2006. Performance optimization of coagulant/flocculant in the treatment of wastewater from a beverage industry, Journal of Hazardous Material, 129. 69-72.
  3. 3) Ananikov, Valentin P.; Szilagyi, Robert; Morokuma, Keiji; Musaev, Djamaladdin G., 2005. "Can Steric Effects Induce the Mechanism Switch in the Rhodium-Catalyzed Imine Boration Reaction. A Density Functional and ONIOM Study". Organomet. 24, 8: 1938. doi:10.1021/om049156o.
  4. 4) Binnie, C. Kimber, M. and Smethurst, G., 2003. Basic Water Treatment, 3rd Ed, MPG Books, Bodmin, Great Britain.
  5. 5) Bolto, B. and Gregory, J., 2007. Organic polyelectrolytes in water treatment, Wat. Res. 41. 2301-2324.
  6. 6) Bratby, J., 2006. Coagulation and flocculation in water and wastewater treatment, 2nd ed., IWA Publishing, UK.
  7. 7) Burgess, J., De Jong, H.C. and Aguitar, Z.P., 2009, Biological Nanostructures, Materials, and Applications, vol. 16 (38) ECS Transaction, New Jersey.
  8. 8) Chang, Q. and Yu, M., 2004. An, application of macromolecular heavy metal flocculant in wastewater treatment, Chemosphere, 6, 42-47.
  9. 9) Cosgrove, T., 2005. Colloid science – Principles, methods and applications (Knovel ebook), Blackwell Publishing, UK.
  10. 10) Crittenden, J.C., Trussell, R.R., Hand, D.W., Howe, K.J. and Tchobanoglous, T. 2005.
  11. 11) Water treatment – Principles and design (2nd ed.) (Knovel ebook), John Wiley & Sons, USA.
  12. 12) Darekh, B.K. and Chen, Z., 2004, Miner. Metall. Proc. 4, 214-216.
  13. 13) Doymus, K., 2007, The Effect of Ionic Electrolytes and pH on the Zeta Potential of Fine Coal Particles, Turk. J. Chem. 31, 589-597.
  14. 14) Duan, J. and Gregory, J., 2002. Coagulation by hydrolysing metal salts, Elsevier B. V. UK.
  15. 15) Duan J. and Gregory J., 2003. Coagulation by hydrolyzing metal salts: Advances in Colloidal & Interface Science, 100-102. 475-502.
  16. 16) Edwards, A.C. and Withers, P.J.A., 2007. Linking phosphorus sources to impacts in different types of water body, Soil Use Manage, 23. 133-143.
  17. 17) Eikebrokk, B., 2007. Characteristics and treatability by coagulation. Comparison of Norwagian and Australian waters, Chemical water and wastewater treatment, IWA Publishing.
  18. 18) Fabris, R., Chow, C.W.K. Drikas, M. and Eikebrokk, B., 2008. Comparison of NOM character in selected Australian and Norwegian drinking waters, Wat. Res. 42. 4188–4196
  19. 19) Field, J.A., Kortekaas, S. and Lettinga, G., 1989. Thetann in theory of methanogenic toxicity,
  20. 20) Biol. Waste, 29. 241–262.
  21. 21) Freeze, S.D, Nozaic, D.J, Pryor, M.J, Rajogopaul, R, Trollip, D.L, Smith, R.A., 2001. Water Supply, vol. 1, IWA Publishing, SA.
  22. 22) Feng, W. and Nansheng, D., 2000. Photochemistry of hydrolytic iron (III) species and photo induced degradation of organic compounds. Chemosphere, 41. 1137-1147.
  23. 23) Firer, D., Friedler, E., Lahav, O., 2008. Control of sulfide in sewer systems by dosage
  24. 24) of iron salts: Comparison between theoretical and experimental results, and practical implications, Sci. Tot. Environ. 392. 145–156.
  25. 25) Gallato, S.L., Peterson, M., Alexandre, N.Z., da Costa, J.A.D., Izidoro, G., Sorato, L., Levati, M., 2009, Incorporacao de residuo do tratamento de drenagem acida em massa de ceramic a vermelha, Ceramica, 55, 53-60.
  26. 26) Geldenhuys, A.J., Maree, J.P., Fourie, W.J., Smit, J.J., Bladergroen, B.J. and Tjati, M., 2001. Acid mine drainage treated electrolytically for recovery of hydrogen, iron(II) oxidation and sulphur production, Submission at the 8th International Congress on Mine Water & Environment in Johannesburg, South Africa
  27. 27) Ghaly, A.E. Snow, A. Faber, B.E., 2006. Treatment of grease filter washwater by chemical coagulation. Canadian Biosystem Engineering, 48.13-6.22.
  28. 28) Goldberg, S., 2002. Competitive Adsorption of Arsenate and Arsenite on Oxides and Clay Minerals, Soil Science Society of America, 66. 413-421.
  29. 29) Gupta, R., 2007, Advanced Coal Characterization: A Review. Energy & Fuels, 21, 451-460.
  30. 30) Kleijn, W.B. and Ostzr, J.D., 1982, A model of swelling and tactoid formation, Clay and Clay Min. 30 (5) 383-390.
  31. 31) Kosmulski M. and Saneluta C., 2004. Point of zero charge/isoelectric point of exotic oxides: Tl2O3', J. Colloid and Interf. Sci. 280 (2) 544-545.
  32. 32) Haselberg, Rob; van der Sneppen, Lineke; Ariese, Freek; Ubachs, Wim; Gooijer, Cees; de Jong, Gerhardus J.; Somsen, Govert W., 2009. "Effectiveness of charged non-covalent polymer coatings against protein adsorption to silica surfaces studied by evanescent-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy and capillary electrophoresis". Anal. Chem. 81(24) 10172–10178.
  33. 33) Herrera, P.S., Uchiyama, H., Igarashi, T., Asakura, K., Ochi, Y., Ishizuka, F., Kawada, S., 2007, Acid mine drainage treatment through a two-step neutralization ferrite-formation process in northern Japan: Physical and chemical characterization of the sludge, Mineral Eng. 20, 1309-1314.
  34. 34) Hower, J., Graham, U.M., Dozier, A., Tseng, M.T. and Khatri, R.A., 2008, Association of the sites of heavy metals with nanoscale carbon in a kentucky electrostatic precipitator fly ash, Environ. Sci. and Technol. 42, 8371-8477.
  35. 35) Huang, X., Finkelman, R.B., 2008, Understand th Chemical Properties of Macerals and Minerals in Coal and its Potential Application for Occupational Lung Disease Prevention. J. Toxicl. Environ. Health, Part B, 11, 45-67.
  36. 36) Kemmer, J., 1988, Nalco Water Handbook. 2nd edition. McGraw-Hill, New York.
  37. 37) Khanal, S. K. and Huang, J. C., 2003, "ORP-based oxygenation for sulfide control in anaerobic treatment of high-sulfate wastewater." Wat. Res. 37, 2053-2062.
  38. 38) Khanal, S. K. and Huang, J. C., 2006, "Online oxygen control for sulfide oxidation in anaerobic treatment of high-sulfate wastewater." Wat. Environ. Res. 78 (4) 397-408.
  39. 39) Kishida, N., Kim, J. H., Chen, M., Sasaki, H. and Sudo, R., 2003, "Effectiveness of oxidation-reduction potential and pH as monitoring and control parameters for nitrogen removal in swine
  40. 40) wastewater treatment by sequencing batch reactors." J. of Biosci. and Bioeng. 96, 285-290.
  41. 41) Kosmulski M. and Saneluta C., 2004, Point of zero charge/isoelectric point of exotic oxides: Tl2O3', J. Colloid and Interf. Sci. 280(2) 544-545.
  42. 42) Kurniawan, T.A. Chan, W.S., Lo W-S. and Babel, S., 2006. Chemical Engineering, 118. 83–87.
  43. 43) Labeschagne, C., 2005. Investigation of the acid mine drainage potential on the Kopanong rock dump, Vaal Reefs, A dissertation submitted for MSc degree at North West University, RSA.
  44. 44) Lee, J., 2001. Application of liquid electron theory to the cross effect between ionic and electric charge flow in semiconduct oxide. Journal Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 62. 1263-1270.
  45. 45) Libecki, B. and Dziejowski, J., 2008, Optimization of Humic Acids Coagulation with Aluminum and Iron(III) Salts, Polish J. of Environ. Stud. 17, 397-403
  46. 46) Lorenz, P.B., 1969, Surface conductance and electrokinetic properties of kaolinite beds, Clays and Clay Min. 17, 223-231.
  47. 47) Meghzili B., 2008. Tests of Coagulation - Flocculation by Aluminum Sulphate and Polycations Al on Raw Waters of the Station of Treatment Skikda (Algeria): European J. Sci. Res. 23(2): 268-277.
  48. 48) Maree, J.P., 2004, Treatment of industrial effluent for neutralization and sulphate removal, A thesis submitted for PhD at the North West University, RSA.
  49. 49) Metcalf, W and Eddy, C., 2003. Wastewater Engineering. 4th. McGraw-Hill Inc, New York.
  50. 50) Molony, J., 2005. Colour coating & corrosion SA-J. for OCCA SA, SAPMA. Leaf Media. Natal (SA).
  51. 51) Naicker, K., Cukrowska, E., & McCarthy, T.S. 2003. Acid mine drainage from gold mining activities in Johannesburg, South Africa and environs, Environ. Pol. 122, 29-40.
  52. 52) Neto, M. A. S., Villwock, R., Scheer, S., Steiner, M. T. A., & Dyminski, A. S., 2010, Visual data mining techniques applied for the analysis of data collected at itaipu power plant, Técnicas de Mineração Visual de Dados aplicadas aos dados deinstrument.
  53. 53) Nielsen, A.H., Lens, P., Vollertsen, J. and Hvitved-Jacobsen, T., 2005. Sulfide-iron interactions in domestic wastewater from a gravity sewer, Water Res. 39. 2747–2755.
  54. 54) Nielsen, A.H., Vollertsen, J., Jensen, H.S., Wium-Andersen, T. and Hvitved-Jacobsen, T., 2008. Influence of pipe material and surfaces on sulfide related odor and corrosion in sewers, Wat. Res. 42. 4206–4214.
  55. 55) Nielsen, A.H., Hvitved-Jacobsen, T. and Vollertsen, J., 2008. Effects of pH and Iron Concentrations on Sulfide Precipitation in Wastewater Collection Systems, Water Environ. Res. 80. 380–380.
  56. 56) Ntwampe, I.O. Jewell, L.L. Hildebrandt, D and Glasser, D., 2013. The effect of mixing on the treatment of paint wastewater with Fe3+ and Al3+ salts, Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 5(1) 7-16.
  57. 57) Ntwampe, I.O., Waanders, F., Fosso-Kankeu, E and Bunt, J., Reaction Dynamics of Iron and Aluminium Salts Dosage in AMD Using Shaking As an Alternative Technique in the Destabilization-hydrolysis Process, Intern. Sci. Res. J. accepted on the 17 June 2015.
  58. 58) Parra-Barraza, H., Hernandez-Montiel, D., Lizardi, J. Hernandez, J. Urbina, R.H. and Valdez, M.A., 2003, Fuel 82, 869-874.
  59. 59) Petrik, L.F., White, R.A., Klink, M.J., Somerset, V.S., Burgers, C.L. and Fey, M.V., 2003. Utilization of South African Fly Ash to Treat Acid Coal Mine Drainage, and Production of High
  60. 60) Quality Zeolites from the Residual Solids, Submission of International Ash Utilization Symposium, October 20-22, 2003, Lexington, Kentucky, USA
  61. 61) Pratt, C., Shilton, A., Pratt, S., Haverkamp, R.G. and Elmetri, I., 2007. Effects of redox potential and pH changes on phosphorus retention by melter slag filters treating wastewater, Environmental Science and Technology, 4 (18), 6583-6590.
  62. 62) Sabah, E. and Erkan, Z.E., 2006, Fuel, 85, 350-359.
  63. 63) Santos, J.A., Nunes, L.A.PL., Melo, W.J. and Araujo, A.S.F., 2011, Tannery sludge compost amendment rates on soil microbial biomass of two different soils. Euro. J. of Soil Biol. 47, 146-151.
  64. 64) Scholtz, F. 2010, (Ed.), Electroanalytical Methods, 2nd ed., Springer-Verlag, Germany, pp. 3–9.
  65. 65) Semerjian, L. and Ayoub, G.M., 2003, High-pH-magnesium coagulation-flocculation in wastewater treatment, Adv. in Environ. Res. 7, 389-403.
  66. 66) Sibrell, P. L. Montgomery, G.A., Ritenour, K.L., and Tucker, T.W. 2009. Removal of
  67. 67) phosphorus from agricultural wastewaters using adsorption media prepared from acid mine drainage sludge. Water Research, 43(8) 2240-2250.
  68. 68) Silva, L.F.O., Monero, T. and Querol, X., 2009a, An introductory TEM study of Fe-nanominerals within coal fly ash, Sci. of Environ. 407, 4972-4974.
  69. 69) Silva, L.F.O., Macias, F., Oliviera, M.L.S., Da Boit, K.M. and Waanders, F., 2010a, Leaching of potential hazardous elements of coal cleaning rejects, Environ. Monitor. and Assess. DOI:10. 1007/s10661-010-1340-8.
  70. 70) Sincero, A.P. and Sincero, G.A., 2003. Physical-chemical treatment of water and wastewater, IWA Publishing, Londao, USA.
  71. 71) Skalny, J., Marchand, J. and OdJer, I., 2001. 'Sulfate attack of concrete',(E and FN Spon, London, UK.
  72. 72) Sharp, E.L., Parsons, S.A. and Jefferson, B., 2006. Seasonal variations in natural organic
  73. 73) matter and its impact on coagulation in water treatment, Sci. Tot. Environ. 363. 183–194.
  74. 74) Sharp, E.L., Jarvis, P., Parsons, S.A. and Jefferson, B, 2006. Impact of fractional character
  75. 75) on the coagulation of NOM, Colloids Surf. Physicochem. Eng. Aspects. 286. 104–111.
  76. 76) Sinha, P. ,Szilagyi, I.,Ruiz-Cabello, F.J.M.,Maroni ,P. and Borkovec, M. 2013. Attractive Forces between Charged Colloidal Particles Induced by Multivalent Ions Revealed by Confronting Aggregation and Direct Force Measurements, J. Phys. Chem. 4 (4) 648–652
  77. 77) Stoll, S, 2013, The Importance of Zeta Potential Measurements & Role of Ionic Strength in Flocculation Processes, Wat. Technol. 4 (1) 1-5
  78. 78) Somasundaran, P., Tjipangandjara, K. F., and Maltesh, C., (1989) in "Solid Liquid Separation: Waste Management and Productivity Enhancement" (H. S. Muralidhara, Ed.), p. 325. Battelle Press, Columbus, Ohio.
  79. 79) Sulkowski, W.W. Wolinska, A. Szoltysik, B. Bajdur, W.M. Sulkowska, A., 2005. Preparation and properties of flocculants derived from polystyrene waste. Elsier Ltd. Poland.
  80. 80) Suzuki, M., 1990. Adsorption Engineering, Kodansha Ltd, Japan.
  81. 81) Swartz, C.D. and Ralo, T., 2004. Guidelines for planning and design of small water treatment plants for rural communities with specific emphasis on sustainability and community involvement and participation, Silowa Printers, SA.
  82. 82) Syed Imran A., Shah, 1., Larry W., Kostiuk and Kresta, K.M., 2012, The Effects of Mixing, Reaction Rates, and Stoichiometry on Yield for Mixing Sensitive Reactions—Part I: Model Development, Intern. J. of Chem. Eng. Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 750162, 16 pages
  83. 83) http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/750162
  84. 84) Taylor, H.F.W., 1990. 'Cement chemistry', Academic Press Inc., San Diego, USA.
  85. 85) von Helmholtz, H.L.F and Abhandl, W, 1879. Physik. Tech. Reichsaslaldt, 1. 925.
  86. 86) Von Smoluchowski, M. , 1921. In "Graetz Handbuch der Electrizitiit und des Magnetismus"; VEB Georg
  87. 87) Wall, N.A. and Chopping, G. R. 2003. humic acids coagulation: influence of divalent cations. Appl. Geochem., 18. 1573.
  88. 88) Weber, W. J., Jr., 1972, Physicochemical Process for Water Quality Control, Wiley-Interscience, John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 61-109.
  89. 89) Wei, J., Gao, B., Yue, Q., Wang, Y., Li, W. and Zhu, X., 2009, Comparison of coagulation behaviour and floc structure characteristic of different polyferric-cationic polymer dual-coagulants in humic acid solution, Wat. Res. 43, 724–732.
  90. 90) Wei, J.C., Gao, B.W., Yue, Q.Y. and Wang, Y., 2010, Strength and regrowth properties of polyferric-polymer dual-coagulant flocs in surface water treatment, J. Haz. Mat. 175, 949–954.
  91. 91) Winfrey, B.K., Strosnider, W.H., Nairn, R.W. and Strevett, K.A., 2010, Highly effective reduction of faecal indicator bacteria counts in an ecologically-engineered municipal wastewater and acid mine drainage passive co-treatment system. Ecol. Eng. 36:1620–1626.
  92. 92) Widerska-Broz, M. and Rak, M., 2009. Effect of the type of aluminium coagulant and water pH on the destabilization of the colloid, Environ. Protect. Eng. 35. 63-72.
  93. 93) Wu, Y-M, Shi, C-F, Gu, J, Tan, Y, Wu, X L*, 2006. Microbial community structure in production water from a Daqing petroleum reservoir, Acta Pedologica Sinica,in press ( in Chinese )
  94. 94) Zhang, Z.G., Luan, Z.K., Zhao, Y. Cui, J.H., Chen, .ZY. and Li, Y.Z., 2007, Breakage and regrowth of flocs coagulation with polyaluminum chloride (PACl)], Huan Jing Ke Xue. 28(2): 346-51.

Cite this Article:

International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.

Search Articles

Issue June 2023

Volume 12, June 2023

Table of Contents

World-wide Delivery is FREE

Share this Issue with Friends:

Submit your Paper