Author(s): M. M. Manyi, A. A. Dechi, A. I. Kwaghbo
Studies on the roles of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus complexes in the transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti in Makurdi, Nigeria across four localities: High-level, Wurukum, North- bank and Wadata were undertaken from July, 2011 to June, 2012. 1,681 adult female mosquitoes were identified and dissected with the aid of standard keys and procedures to determine their incrimination rates with microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti. 1,040 (61.87%) of these were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato while 641 (38.13%) were Anopheles funestus. The results showed a significant difference ( between the mosquito species and their abundance. The overall microfilarial incrimination rate was 5.77% (97/1,681); Anopheles gambiae s.l. was more incriminated (3.57%) than Anopheles funestus (2.20%). The incrimination rates differed significantly ( between the two mosquito species surveyed. ANOVA also showed significant variations (P < 0.05) in the microfilarial incrimination rates across the localities and seasons: North-bank locality had the highest microfilarial incrimination rate of 17.23% while mosquitoes from High level, Wurukum and Wadata localities had similar incrimination rates of 3.94%, 3.93% and 3.79% respectively. These rates were higher during the dry season than the wet period. The results revealed potential risk of lymphatic filariasis transmission among residents of Makurdi, since the two Anopheles vectors effectively harboured microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti in their salivary glands. However, determination of microfilarial infection rates in human population is recommended in the study area. The results of the present investigation may provide entomological baseline data required for both present and future implementation of vector/disease control interventions in Makurdi
Anopheles funestus, Anopheles gambiae, Incrimination, microfilarial infection, Makurdi, Nigeria
- Abeyasingha, R.R., Yapabanadara, A.M., Kusumawathie, P.H.D., Perera, D., Peiris, B.S. L., Hewavitharane, H.M.P. and Harshchandra, R.D.J. (2009). Guidelines for Entomological Surveillance of Malaria Vectors in Sri Lanka. Anti-Malaria Campaign, Pp 62-67.
- Agi, P.I and Ebenezer, A. (2009). Observations on Filarial Infection in Amassoma Community in The Niger Delta. Nig J Appl Sc
- and Envir Manag,13(1):15-19.
- Aigbodion, F. I. and Nnoka, H. C. (2008). A Comparative study of the activities of Anopheles gambiae, Culex quinque-fasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) by Pyrethrum Spray collection in Benin City, Nigeria. Biosc Res Comm, 20(3): 147-151.
- Amaechi, A.A., Nwoke, B.E.B. and Ukaga, C.N. (2011). A Comparative Study of Human Lymphatic Filariasis Vectors and
- Filarial Transmission Indices Control Trial Using Insecticide Treated Bed Net (ITBN) in Ebony State, Nigeria. Glob Res J Sci, 1:18-23.
- Anosike, J.C. and Onwuliri, C.O.E. (1992). Experimental Wuchereia bancrofti infection of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. Angew. Parasitol, 33: 139-142
- Anosike, J.C., Nwoke, B.E., Ajayi, E.G., Onwuliri, C.O., Okoro, O.U., Asor, J.E., Amajuoyi, O.U., Ikpeama, C.A., Ogbusu, F.I and Meribe, C.O. (2005). Lymphatic filariasis among the Ezza people of Ebony State, Eastern Nigeria. Annals of Agricultural Environment and Medicine, 12(2):181-186.
- Anosike, J.C., Onwuliri, C.O.E and Onwuliri, V.A. (2003). Human filariasis in Dass local government area of Bauchi State, Nigeria. Trop. Ecol., 44(2): 217-227.
- Awolola, T.S., Idowu, E.T., Adeneye, A.K., Mafe, M.A., Oduola, A.O., Ogunrinade, A.F., Appelt, B. and Coetzee, M. (2006). Entomological Survey and Infection Rates of Plasmodium falciparum and Wuchereria bancrofti in Mosquito Populations in the Kainji Lake Area, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, 27:58-61.
- Badaki, J.A. (2010). Parasitological and Social Aspects of Lymphatic Filariasis in Taraba State. Ph.D Thesis in the Department of Zoology, University of Jos, Nigeria, 137 Pp.
- Brengues, J., Subra, R., Mouchet, J. and Nelson, G.S. (1968).Transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti Cobbold in West Africa. Preliminary Study of a focus in the savannah of North Guinea. Bull W Hlth Org, 38: 595- 608.
- Bryan, J.H. (1986). Vectors of Wuchereria bancrofti in the Sepik Provinces of Papua New Guinea. Trans R Soc Trop Med and Hyg, 80: 123 –131.
- Chandler, A.C and Read, C.P. (1969). Introduction to Parasitology. 10th Ed. Library of Congress Catalog card number: 61-5670, USA, Pp473-494.
- Coetzee, M. (2000). Distribution of the African Malaria Vectors of the Anopheles gambiae complex. A publication of the vector control reference unit, National Institute for communicable diseases, Johannesburg, south Africa, Pp. 1-2.
- Coetzee, M., Craig, M, and le Sueur, D. (2000). Distribution of African Malaria Mosquitoes Belonging to the Anopheles gambiae Complex. Parasitol. Today, 16 (2): 74-77.
- Dandalo, L. C. (2007). The Abundance and Biting Behaviour of Anopheles merus (Dontz) in Gokwe South District, Zimbabwe. A published M.Sc. Thesis in the Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Zimbabwe, 48Pp.
- Eigege, A., Richards, F.O., Blaney, I.D.D., Miri, E.S; Gontor, I., Ogah, G. et al (2003). Rapid Assessment for lymphatic filariasis in Central Nigeria: A comparism of the Immunochromatographic card test and hydrocoele rates in an area of high endemicity. Am J Trop Med and Hyg, 68(6):643-646.
- Federal Republic of Nigeria, Official Gazette. (2007). Legal Notice on Publication of the Details of the Breakdown of the National and State Provisional Totals, 2006 Census, 94: B175-B198.
- FMOH (Federal Ministry of Health). (2009). National Malaria Control Programme Abuja, Nigeria. Strategic Plan 2009-2013: A Road Map for Malaria Control in Nigeria, 39Pp.
- Ghosh, S.K., Yadav, R.S. (1995). Naturally acquired concomitant infections of bancroftian filariasis and human Plasmodia in Orissa. Ind J Malar, 32: 32– 36.
- Gillies, M.T. and Coetzee, M. (1987). A supplement to the Anophelinae of Africa, South of theSahara. Johannesburg: South African Institute of Medical Research, 143Pp.
- Goodman, D.S., Orelus, J.N., Roberts, J.M., Lammie, P.I., Streit, T.G. (2003). PCR and Mosquito dissection as tools to monitor filarial infection levels following mass treatment, Filar J, 2: Pp11.
- Inyama, P.U; Anyanwu, G. I., Onyeka, J.O.A and Yusuf, I. (2003). Infestation Rates of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) with malaria and Lymphatic filarial parasites in Plateau State, Nigeria. J League Res in Nig, 4(2):89-96.
- Kasili, S., Oyieke, F., Wamae, C and Mbogo, C. (2009). Seasonal Changes of Infectivity Rates of Bancroftian Filariasis Vectors in Coast Province, Kenya. J Vect B Dis, 46: 219-224.
- Kubasu, S.S. (1997). The Vectors of Malaria and Filariasis in Kilifi and Kwale Districts of Kenya. Kenyatta University, Nairobi. Pp 153.
- Kuhlow, F. (1987). Observations and experiments on Culex antennatus Backer as a potential Vector of Bancroftian filariasis in West Africa. Ann Trop Med and Parasitol, 38: 349 – 350.
- Laumann, V. (2010). Environmental Strategies to replace DDT and control Malaria. 2nd extended edition: Pestizid Aktions-Netzwerk (PAN) e.V, 40Pp.
- Lenhart, A., Eigege, A., Kal, A., Pam, D., Miri, E. S., Gerlong, G., Oneyka, J., Sambo, Y., Danboyi, J., Ibrahim, B., Dahl, E. Kumbak, D., Dakul, A., Jinadu, M. Y., Umaru, J., Richards, F. O. and Lehmann, T. (2007). Contributions of different mosquito species to the transmission of lymphatic filariasis in central Nigeria: Implications for monitoring infection by PCR in mosquito pools. Filarial Journal, 6: 14 doi: 10.1186 / 1475 – 2883 – 6 – 14. http://www.filariajounral.com/content/6/1/14
- Makunde, W. H., Kamugisha, L. M., Massaga, J. J., Makunde, R. W., Savael, Z. X., Akida, J., Salum, F.M. and Taylor, M. J. (2003). Treatment of co-infection with bancroftian filariasis and onchocerciasis. A safety and efficacy study of albendazole with ivermectin compared to treatment of single infection with bancroftian filariasis. Filarial Journal, 2: 15 – 21.
- Manguin, S., Bangs, M. J., Pothikasikorn, J., and Chareonviriyaphap, T. (2010). Review on Global Co-transmission of Human Plasmodium species and Wuchereria bancrofti by Anopheles Mosquitoes. Infect, Gen. and Evol., 10: 159- 177.
- Manyi, M.M and Imandeh, G.N. (2008). Infection Rates of Mosquitoes with Malaria and Lymphatic Filarial Parasites in Makurdi, Benue State-Nigeria. J Pest, Dis and Vect Manag, 8: 464-470.
- Muturi, E.J., Mbogo, C.M., Ng’ang’a, Z.W., Mwandawiro, C., Novak, R.J., Beier, J.C. (2006b). Relationship between malaria and filariasis transmission indices in an endemic area along the Kenyan Coast. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases 43: 77 –83.
- Muirhead – Thomson, M.C. (1953). Inter-relationships between filarial and malarial infections in Anopheles gambiae. Nat, 172: 352 – 353.
- Nwoke, B. E. B., Nwoke, E. A., Ukaga, C. N. and Nwachukwu N. I. (2010). Epidemiological Characteristics of Bancroftian filariasis and the Nigerian environment. J Pub Hlth and Epi, 2(6): 113-117.
- Nyagba, J. L. (1995). The geography of Benue State. In: A Benue Compendium. Denga, D. I. (Ed) Calabar, Rapid Educational Publishers Ltd, Pp 85 – 97.
- Oguoma, V.M., Nwaorgu, O.C., Mbanefo, E.C., Ikpeze, O.O., Umeh, J.M., Eneanya, C.I. and Ekwunife, C.A. (2010). Species Composition of Anopheles mosquitoes in three villages of Uratta Owerri north Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Reviews in Infection, 1(4): 192-196.
- Okon, O.E., Iboh, C.I and Opara, K.N. (2010). Bancroftian Filariasis among the Mbembe people of Cross River State, Nigeria. J. Vect B Dis., 47(2):91-96.
- Omudu, E. A. and Ochoga, J. O. (2011). Clinical epidemiology of lymphatic filariasis and community practices and perceptions amongst the Ado people of Benue State, Nigeria. Afr J Infect Dis, 5(2):4–53.
- Service, M.W. (2012). Medical Entomology for Students. 5 th edn, Cambridge University Press, New York, 303Pp.
- Pedersen, E. M. and Mukolo, D. A. (2012). Impact of insecticide-treated materials on filarial transmission by the various species of vector mosquito in Africa. Ann Trop Med and Parasitol, 96: 91 – 95.
- Ravindran, B., Sahoo, P.K., Dash, A.P. (1998). Lymphatic filariasis and malaria: concomitant parasitism in Orissa, India. Trans R Soc Trop Med and Hyg, 92: 21 –23.
- Targema, C.N., Onwuliri, C. O. E., Mafuyai, H.B., Mwansat, G.S., Aida, A., Eigege A., Ityonzughul, C., Kal, A., Orkurga, A. and Jinadu, M.Y. (2008). Mapping of lymphatic filariasis in Benue State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, 29 (1): 55 - 61.
- Taylor, A.W. (1930). The Domestic Mosquitoes of Gadau, Northern Nigeria, and their relationto malaria and filariasis. Ann Trop Med and Parasitol, 24: 425 – 435.
- Udo, K. R. (1981). Geographical Regions of Nigeria. London, Morrison and Gibb Ltd, Pp 133 – 149.
- Udoidung, N.I., Braide, E.I.,Okpara, K.N., Ating, I.A and Adie, H.A. (2008). Current statusof bancroftian filariasis in rural communities of the lower Cross River basin, Nigeria: Parasitological and Clinical aspects. J. Pub. Hlth, 16:383-388.
- Udonsi, J.K. (1988). Bancroftian filariasis in the Igwu Basin, Nigeria. An epidemiological, Parasitological and clinical study in relation to the transmission dynamics Act Trop, 45:171-179.
- Ungureanu, E.M. (1972). Methods for Dissecting Dry Insects and Insects Preserved in FixativeSolutions or by Refrigeration. Bull World Hlth Org, 47: 239-244.
- Uttah, E. C., Iboh, C. I., Ajang, R., Osim, S.E. and Etta, H. (2013c). Physiological age composition of female Anopheline mosquitoes in an area endemic for malaria and filariasis. Int J Sci and Res Publ, 3(7): ISSN 2250 – 3153.
- World Health Organisation. (2010). The Regional Strategic plan for Elimination of Lymphatic filariasis, (2010-2015), 21Pp.
- World Health Organization. (2002). Malaria Entomology and Vector Control. Learner’s guide. WHO, Geneva, 126Pp.
- World Health Organization. (1999). Expert Committee on Vector Biology and Control. Geneva 6th – 10th December, 1999.
- World Health Organization (1975). Manual on Practical entomology in Malaria. Part I and II.
- Methods and Techniques. World Health Organization Offset Publication, Geneva, Switzerland, 13, 1 Pp 160.
Cite this Article:
International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.