Psychologists routinely treat psychological attributes as quantitative in nature, and the majority of statistical tools traditionally employed by psychologists also rest upon the assumption of continuous quantitative structure. There is no evidence, however, that attributes such as intelligence, depression, personality traits, etc. are truly quantitative, thus rendering most statistical techniques inappropriate for psychological data. Observation Oriented Modeling (OOM) is an alternative data analysis technique that does not require the assumption of continuous quantity, and it is an approach that eschews aggregate statistics while returning individual observations to the forefront of the analysis. Two published mediation models are re-analyzed in the current paper using OOM and the results compared to those obtained from traditional, variable-based analyses. It is shown that OOM yields results that are entirely transparent and readily interpretable. Unlike traditional analyses, the results also provide a clear understanding of what is happening at the level of the persons in the two studies. OOM is therefore a novel way of conceptualizing and analyzing data that may lead to more accurate and complete explanations of psychological phenomena.
Observation Oriented Modeling, Mediation Analysis, Null Hypothesis Significance Testing, Research Methods
- Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182
- Barrett, P. (2008). The consequence of sustaining a pathology: Scientific stagnation â€“ a commentary on the target article â€œIs psychometrics a pathological science?â€ by Joel Michell. Measurement, 6, 78-83
- Brown, E. A. & Grice, J. W. (2011). One is enough: Single-item measurement via the Dynamic
- Analog Scale. Sage Open, 1-10. DOI: 10.1177/2158244011428647
- Collins, L. M., Graham, J. W., & Flaherty, B. P. (1998). An alternative framework for defining mediation. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 33, 295-312
- Donnellan, M. B., Larsen-Rife, D., & Conger, R. D. (2005). Personality, family history, and competence in early adult romantic relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 562-576
- Faldowski, R. A. (2009). Rediscovering the individual in mediation analysis. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 43, 253-259
- Fechner, G. T. (1860). Elemente der Psychophysik [Elements of psychophysics] (Vol. Leipzig, Germany. Breitkopf & HÃ¤rtel
- Ferguson, A., Myers, C. S., Bartlett, R. J., Banister, H., Bartlett, F. C., Brown, W., Campbell, N. R., Craik, K. J. W., Drever, J., Guild, J., Houstoun, R. A., Irwin, J. O., Kaye, G. W. C., Philpott, S. J. F., Richardson, L. F., Shaxby, J. H., Smith, T., Thouless, R. H., & Tucker, W. S. (1940). Final report of the committee appointed to consider and report upon the possibility of quantitative estimates of sensory events. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 2, 331-349
- Freedman, D. A. (1991). Statistical models and shoe leather. Sociological Methodology, 21, 291- 313
- Gelfand, L. A., Mensinger, J. L., & Tenhave, T. (2009). Mediation analysis: A retrospective snapshot of practice and more recent directions. Journal of General Psychology, 136, 153-176
- Grice, J. W. (2011). Observation oriented modeling: Analysis of cause in the behavioral sciences. San Diego, CA: Academic Press
- Grice J.W., Barrett P.T., Schlimgen L.A., Abramson C.I. (2012) Toward a Brighter Future for Psychology as an Observation Oriented Science. Behavioral Sciences, 2(1), 1-22.
- HÃ¶lder, O. (1901). Die Axiome der QuantitÃ¤t und die Lehre vom Mass. Berichte Ã¼ber die Verhandlungen der KÃ¶nglich SÃ¤chsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, Mathematisch-Physische Klasse, 53, 1-46
- Johnson, H. M. (1936). Pseudo-mathematics in the mental and social sciences. American Journal of Psychology, 48, 342-351
- Judd, C. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1981). Process analysis: Estimating mediation in treatment evaluations. Evaluation Review, 5, 602-619
- Kaczynski, K. J., Lindahl, K. M., Malik, N. M., & Laurenceau, J. (2006). Marital conflict, maternal and paternal parenting, and child adjustment: A test of mediation and moderation. Journal of Family Psychology, 20, 199-208
- Kazdin, A. E. (2007). Mediators and mechanisms of change in psychotherapy research. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, 1-27
- Kenny, D. A., Kashy, D. A., & Bolger, N. (1997). Data analysis in social psychology. In D. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.) Handbook of Social Psychology (4th edition, Vol 1, pp. 233-265). New York: McGraw-Hill
- Markus, K. A. & Borsboom, D. (2012). The cat came back: Evaluating arguments against
- psychological measurement. Theory & Psychology, 22, 452-466
- Mason, W. M. (1991). Freedman is right as far as he goes, but there is more, and itâ€™s worse. Statisticians could help. Sociological Methodology, 21, 337-351
- Michell, J. (1997). Quantitative science and the definition of measurement in psychology. British Journal of Psychology, 88, 355-383
- Michell, J. (2008). Is psychometrics pathological science? Measurement, 6, 7-24
- Michell, J. (2011). Qualitative research meets the ghost of Pythagoras. Theory & Psychology, 21, 241-259
- Nagy, M. S. (2002). Using a single-item approach to measure facet job satisfaction. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75, 77â€“86.
- NIMH Consortium of Editors on Development and Psychopathology (2000). Editorial statement
- Applied Developmental Science, 4(1), 66
- Stevens, S. S. (1946). On the theory of scales of measurement. Science, 103, 667-680.
- Tremblay, P. F., & Gardner, R. C. (1996). On the growth of structural equation modeling in psychological journals. Structural Equation Modeling, 3, 93-104
- Trendler, G. (2009). Measurement theory, psychology and the revolution that cannot happen. Theory & Psychology, 19, 579-599
- Von Eye, A., Mun, E. Y., & Mair, P. (2009). What carries a mediation process? Configural analysis of mediation. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 43, 228-247
- Webster, C. D., Harris, G. T., Rice, M. E., Cormier, C., & Quinsey, V. L. (1994). The violence prediction scheme: Assessing dangerousness in high risk men. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto, Centre of Criminology
- Woods, B. (2011). Whatâ€™s still wrong with psychology, anyway? Twenty slow years, three old issues, and one new methodology for improving psychological research. Unpublished
- Masterâ€™s Thesis, University of Canterbury, NZ
Cite this Article:
International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.