Samples were collected from four (4) underground water sources in Enyigba Pb-Zn mining district, near Abakaliki in southeastern Nigeria. The samples were acidified to stabilize the metals for periods more than four days without the use of refrigeration. The acidified water samples were analysed by a commercial laboratory at Projects Development Institute (PRODA), Enugu using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The elements determined by this method are lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn) and cobalt (Co). The result and analysis showed that metal enrichment index (MPI) of As, Cd, Pb and Ni are very high in the groundwater samples, indicating high degree of contamination compared to WHO permissible limits. All these metals contributed to high degree of contamination based on metal pollution index (MPI). The calculated metal enrichment and pollution indices show values that indicate that under the prevailing conditions and environmental regulations in Nigeria, the Enyigba mining district would face major and hazardous discharges of these metals to other water sources in the area.
Metal Enrichment Index, Metal Pollution Index, Underground Water, Lead/Zinc Mines, Enyigba
- Agumanu, A. E. (1989). The Abakaliki and Ebonyi Formations: sub-divisions of the Albian Asu River Group in the the southern Benue trough, Nigeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences.Vol. 9, No 1, pp. 195-207.
- Bölücek, C. (2007). Environmental contamination in the Keban mining district, eastern Turkey. Arabian Journal of Science and Engineering 32 (1A), 3-18.
- Caeiro, S., Costa, M. H., Ramos, T. B., Fernandes, F., Silveira, N., Coimbra, A., Medeiros, G. and Painho, M. (2005). Assessing heavy metal contamination in Sado estuary sediment: an index analysis approach. Ecological Indicators 5, 151-169.
- Cidu, R. and Fanfani, L. (2000). Impact of dismantled mines on water resources in Sardinia (Italy). Retrieved from www.cprm.gov.br/pgagcm/Manuscripts/cidur.htm.on 30/05/2011
- Farrington, J. L. (1952). A Preliminary Description of the Nigerian lead-zinc field. Econ. Geol 47 (6), 583-608.
- Gajowiec, B. and Witkowski, A. (1993). Impact of lead/zinc mining on groundwater quality in Trzebionka mine (Southern Poland), Mine Water and Environment 12, 1-10.
- Hoque, M. (1977). Petrographic Differentiation of Tectonically Controlled Cretaceous Sedimentary Cycles, Southeast Nigeria, Sed. Geol., 17, 235-245.
- Igwe, O., Adepehin, E. I. and Iwuanyanwu, C. (2012). Environmental effects of the mining of lead-zinc minerals in Enyigba and its suburbs, southern Bebue Trough, Nigeria. Nigeria Journal of Education, Heath and Technology Research, 3 (2): 30-44.
- Kogbe, C. A. (1989). The Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments of Southern Nigeria, In Geology of Nigeria, C. A. Kogbe (ed). Rock View Nigeria Limited, Jos. pp. 325-334.
- Mattigod, S. V. and Page, A. L. (1983). Assessment of metal pollution in soils. In: Thornton, I. (ed) Applied Environmental Geochemistry, Academic Press, London, 355-393.
- Nash, J. T. (2003). Historic mills and mill tailings as potential sources of contamination in and near the Humboldt River Basin, Northern Nevada, USGS Bulletin 2210 – D, 36p.
- Nimick, D. A., Church, S. E., Cleasby, T. E., Fey, D. L., Kimball, B. A., Leib, K. J., Mast, M. A. and Wright, W. G. (1999). Characterization of metals in water and bed sediment in two watersheds affected by historical mining in Montana and Colorado. Retrieved from: http://toxics.usgs.gov/pubs/wri99-4018/vol1/sectionA/1201-Nimick/pdf/Nimick.pdf. on 03/04/2011.
- Nnabo, P. N. (2011). Environmental impacts of lead/zinc mining in Enyigba area, SE of Abakaliki, SE Nigeria. Ph.D Thesis, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria. 322p.
- Nnabo, P. N. (2015). Assessment of heavy metal distribution in rocks from Enyigba Pb-Zn district, southeastern Nigeria. International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research, 17 (1): 175-185.
- Nnabo, P. N., Orazulike, D. M. and Offor, C. O. (2011). The preliminary assessment of the level of heavy Elements contaminations in stream bed sediments of Enyigba and environs, south eastern Nigeria Journal of Basic Physical Research, Vol. 2, No.2, pp. 43 – 52.
- Onyeobi, T. U. S. and Imeokparia, E. G. (2014). Heavy metal contamination and distribution in soils around Pb-Zn mines of Abakaliki district, southeastern Nigeria. Frontiers in Geosciences, 2 (2): 30-40.
- Orajaka, S. (1965). The Geology of Enyigba, Ameri and Ameka Lead-Zinc lodes Abakaliki; South-eastern Nigeria. A reconnaissance. J. Min. Geol. 2, 65-69.
- Orazulike, D. M. (1994). The mineralogy and texture of lead – zinc – copper ores of Enyigba lode, Abakaliki, Nigeria, Journal of Mining and Geology 30 (1), 25-32.
- Plant, J. A. and Raiswell, R. (1983). Principles of environmental geochemistry. In: Thornton, I. (ed) Applied Environmental Geochemistry, Academic Press, London, 1-39.
- World Health Organization (2011). Guidelines for drinking-water quality [electronic resource]: incorporating 1st and 2nd addenda. Vol. 1, Recommendations, 5th edition. Geneva. 668p.
International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.