Author(s): J. Omololu-Aso, A.O Oluduro, Omololu-Aso O.O, A.T Owolabi, Arwa Shesha
We looked into the frequent incidence of Staphylococcal infections among some clinical diagnosed infectious diseases reported cases at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile – Ife, Nigeria and its community-based involvement. Eight hundred and fifty samples of different cultures were taken from hospital and community sources. The clinical sources were the routine specimens of wound swabs, urine, stool, blood and sputum from the Department of Microbiology and Parasitology laboratory of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC) Ile–Ife. The non-clinical samples were obtained from the nasal cavity of apparently healthy food handlers at restaurants in Obafemi Awolowo University campus and food vendors in Ile–Ife central market. Samples were cultured on mannitol salt agar and incubated at 37oC for 24-48 hours. Staphylococcus aureus were isolated and identified based on mannitol fermentation, Gram’s reaction, positive results for catalase, coagulase and DNAse tests. The data generated were subjected to statistical analysis using T-Test. Two hundred and thirty (56.8%) of S. aureus isolates were recovered from the hospital sources and 175 (43.2%) from the community setting. Incidence rate was the highest in age range 21-30 among urine, wound, sputum and blood Case -based samples analyzed. Urine S. aureus Case-based infection in female (58.6%) was higher than (41.4%) in male, Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) reported cases was about more than doubled of other infections follow by the urinary tract (UTI) independent infection. Wound associated case- based infections among Female (65.5%) was doubled that of Male which was (34.3%) and sepsis independent cases constituted 32.8%; Sputum based S. aureus infection in female was 56.8% higher than 43.2% in Male. 66.7% from Pulmonary Inflammation Case- based investigated constituted overwhelmingly more than double of other infections. In addition, (63.8%) Stool associated Case-based infections from Female was higher than 36.2% observed among Male. Diarrhea cases constituted majorly of 38.3% and it showed an exceptional incident rate of infections which was noticed to be higher among the age range 11-20. Blood S. aureus associated infections in female (53.3%) was higher than 46.7% in Male and bacteremia/ sepsis cases predominated about 63.3%. (T= 95% confidence interval of the difference). Community S. aureus isolates accounted for 43% of the total isolates from which cell phones and food handlers constituted 15%, and stethoscopes S. aureus isolates 13%. The carrier rate of S. aureus in the nose of apparently healthy individuals among the food handlers in the community was higher among Male (64.5%) than 35.5% Female. (T=95% confidence interval of the difference). Plan are underway to evaluate the relationship between antibiotics use in this hospital and the pattern of antimicrobial resistance observed.
Staphyloccoccal infection, Hospital, Community, Case –based profile.
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