Case Profile Analysis on Health- Care Associated Staphylococcal Infections and Community Acquired Sources: Demographic and Clinical Surveillance Study Ile – Ife South Western Nigeria

Case Profile Analysis on Health- Care Associated Staphylococcal Infections and Community Acquired Sources: Demographic and Clinical Surveillance Study Ile – Ife South Western Nigeria

Loading document ...
Loading page ...


Author(s): J. Omololu-Aso, A.O Oluduro, Omololu-Aso O.O, A.T Owolabi, Arwa Shesha

Download Full PDF Read Complete Article

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.841 421 970 1-10 Volume 5 - Jun 2016


We looked into the frequent incidence of Staphylococcal infections among some clinical diagnosed infectious diseases reported cases at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile – Ife, Nigeria and its community-based involvement. Eight hundred and fifty samples of different cultures were taken from hospital and community sources. The clinical sources were the routine specimens of wound swabs, urine, stool, blood and sputum from the Department of Microbiology and Parasitology laboratory of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC) Ile–Ife. The non-clinical samples were obtained from the nasal cavity of apparently healthy food handlers at restaurants in Obafemi Awolowo University campus and food vendors in Ile–Ife central market. Samples were cultured on mannitol salt agar and incubated at 37oC for 24-48 hours. Staphylococcus aureus were isolated and identified based on mannitol fermentation, Gram’s reaction, positive results for catalase, coagulase and DNAse tests. The data generated were subjected to statistical analysis using T-Test. Two hundred and thirty (56.8%) of S. aureus isolates were recovered from the hospital sources and 175 (43.2%) from the community setting. Incidence rate was the highest in age range 21-30 among urine, wound, sputum and blood Case -based samples analyzed. Urine S. aureus Case-based infection in female (58.6%) was higher than (41.4%) in male, Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) reported cases was about more than doubled of other infections follow by the urinary tract (UTI) independent infection. Wound associated case- based infections among Female (65.5%) was doubled that of Male which was (34.3%) and sepsis independent cases constituted 32.8%; Sputum based S. aureus infection in female was 56.8% higher than 43.2% in Male. 66.7% from Pulmonary Inflammation Case- based investigated constituted overwhelmingly more than double of other infections. In addition, (63.8%) Stool associated Case-based infections from Female was higher than 36.2% observed among Male. Diarrhea cases constituted majorly of 38.3% and it showed an exceptional incident rate of infections which was noticed to be higher among the age range 11-20. Blood S. aureus associated infections in female (53.3%) was higher than 46.7% in Male and bacteremia/ sepsis cases predominated about 63.3%. (T= 95% confidence interval of the difference). Community S. aureus isolates accounted for 43% of the total isolates from which cell phones and food handlers constituted 15%, and stethoscopes S. aureus isolates 13%. The carrier rate of S. aureus in the nose of apparently healthy individuals among the food handlers in the community was higher among Male (64.5%) than 35.5% Female. (T=95% confidence interval of the difference). Plan are underway to evaluate the relationship between antibiotics use in this hospital and the pattern of antimicrobial resistance observed.


Staphyloccoccal infection, Hospital, Community, Case –based profile.


  1. Esan, C. O., Famurewa, O., Lin, J. and Shittu A. O. (2009). Characterization of S. aureus isolates obtained from health care institution in Ekiti and Ondo state -, South –Western Nigeria. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 3(12) : 3962-968
  2. Gorwitz, R. J., Dreanna, K. M., Sigrid, K. M., Geraldine, M., Linda, K., Gregory, E, F., Bette, J. J. And Gorge, K. (2008). Changes in the Prevalence of Nasal Colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in the United States. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 197: 1226-1234
  3. Gillet, Y., Jerome, E., Gerald, L. and Francois, V. (2002). Association of necrotizing pneumonia with Panton Valentine Leucocidin- producing S. aureus, regardless of methcillin resistance. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 47(7): 985-986..
  4. Jerraud, S., Mongel, C. and Thiolouse, J. (2002). Staphylococcal skin infection in children. Clinical Evidence, 7: 692-697.
  5. Kikuchi, K. (2003). Genetic basis of neonatal methicillin resistant S.aureus. Pediatric Jounal, 45 (2): 14- 16.
  6. Kopp, B. J., Pantwala, A. E. and Norris, C. J. (2004). Clinical and economic analysis of methicillin susceptible and resistant S. aureus infections. Journal of Vector Borne Diseases, 6: 1526644.
  7. Klein, E.; David, L. S. And Ramanan, L. (2007). Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emergence Infectious Diseases 13: 1840-1946.
  8. Klevens, R. M., Morrison, M. A., Nadle, J., Petit, S., Gershman, K; Ray, S., Harrison, L. H., Lynfields, R., Dumyati, G., Townes, J. M., Craig, A. S., Zell, E. R., Fosheim, G. E., McDougal, L. K., Carey, R. B., and Fridkin, S. K. (2006). Invasive methicillin resistant S. aureus infections in the United States, Journal of American Medical Asociation, 298:1763-1771
  9. Musser, J. M. and Selander, R. K. (1990). Genetic analysis of natural populations of S. aureus in molecular biology of the staphylococci.
  10. Klevens, R. M.; Morrison. M. A.; and Fridkin, S. K. (2007). Invasive Methicillin Ressitant Staphylococcus aureus Emergence Infectious Diseases 13:1940-1846.
  11. Engemann, J. J., Schmander. K. and Wilson, S. J. (2003). Surgical rate infection due to S. aureus among elderly patients Journal of Microbiology, 36: 858-862.
  12. Olutiola, P.O., Famurewa, O. and Sonntag, H-G (1991). An Introduction to General Microbiology: Practical Approach. Pp. 126-127.
  13. Akindele, A. A., Adewuyi, I. K., Adefioye, O. A., Adedokun, S. A. and Olaolu, A. O. (2010). Antibiogram and Beta-lactamase production of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from different human clinical specimens in a tertiary health institution in Ile Ife, Nigeria. American – Eurasian Journal of Scietific Research, 5: 230-233.
  14. Bennie, L., Jonathan R., Alliison, W. and Jedi, M. (2008). Prevalence of MRSA among Orthopaedic patients at large Academic Hospital. Orthopaedics, 3: 400I .
  15. Huda, T., Nair, H., Theodoratou, E., Zgaga L., Fattom, A., E l Arifeen, S., Reuben C., Campbell, H. and Rudan, I. (2011). An evaluation of the emerging vaccines and immunotherapy against staphylococcal pneumonia in Children. Biomedical Public Health,11: S27-30
  16. CDC (2006). National Centres for Chronic Diseases prevention and health promotion. htm. Retrieved 2009. 08.10
  17. Ellingson, K., Robert, R. M., Rajiv, J., David, K. and Candace, C. (2011). Sustained reduction in the clinical incidence of methicillin resistant S. aureus colonization or infection associated with a multi- faceted infection control intervensions. Journal of Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 532 : 1-8.
  18. Harptuluoglu, U., Ugel, E. and Sahin, I. (2005). Nasopharyngeal aerobic bacterial flora and S. aureus nasal carriage in deaf children. International Journal of pediatric. Otorhinolaryngology, 69: 69-74.
  19. Shiojima, T., Ohki, Y, Nako, Y., Morikawa, A., Okubo, T. and Iyobe, S (2003). Immediate control of a methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit. Journal of Infection Chemotherapy, (3): 243-247
  20. Shopsin, B. and Kreiswirth, B.N. (2001). Molecular epidemiology of met-resistanct Staphylococcus aureus. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 7(2): 323-326.
  21. Lowy, F.D. (1998). S. aureus infection. New England of Journal of Medicine 339: 520-525.
  22. Lodise, T. P. and McKinnon, P. S. (2005). Diagnostic Microbiology. Infectious Diseases, 52: 113-122.
  23. Nixon, M., Jackson, B., Varghese, P., Jenkins, D. and Taylor, G. (2006). Rate of infection and colonization by methicillin resistant S. aureus. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 88 (6): 812-817.

Cite this Article:

International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.

Search Articles

Issue June 2023

Volume 12, June 2023

Table of Contents

World-wide Delivery is FREE

Share this Issue with Friends:

Submit your Paper