The present study investigates the potential use of used black tea leaves (UBTL) for the removal of Crystal Violet (CV) from acidic solution in batch process. The influences of different adsorption parameters such as contact time, concentration, processing temperatures and ionic strength were investigated. UV-visible spectrophotometer was used to analysis CV at a specific pH (6.0) of solution. Several model isotherms were depicted at different processing temperatures using acidic solution of pH 2.0. Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) and Florry-Huggins model equation were subjected to analyze the equilibrium adsorption data. The experimental data reveals Langmuir and D-R models comparatively better fitted than Freundlich, Tempkin and Florry-Huggins models. The equilibrium adsorption capacity (qm) computed from Langmuir equation is 184.1 mg/g at 30oC which is increased with increase of processing temperature. The adsorption energy (E) calculated from D-R model indicates physical adsorption which plays cardinal role in this adsorption process. The value of separation factor informs that the adsorption process is favorable in nature. The effect of electrolytes (NaCl and NaNO3) suggests a possible adsorption mechanism of CV onto UBTL. The values of thermodynamic variables such as Gibbs free energy (∆Gads), enthalpy (∆Hads) and entropy (∆Sads) suggests the adsorption process is non-spontaneous, physisorption with negligible amount of fragmentation of dye molecules.
Crystal Violet, used black tea leaves, adsorption isotherm models, thermodynamics
- Easton, J. R and Cooper, P., (1995) In the dye maker’s view of color in dye house effluent,Wood head publishing ltd., Bradford, UK.
- Zollinger, H., Color chemistry, synthesis, properties and application of organic dyes and Pigments, 3rd edition, 2003, Wiley, Weinheim.
- Hossain, M. A. and Hassan, M. T., (2013) Kinetic and thermodynamic study of the adsorption of Crystal Violet on used black tea leaves. Orbital Elec. J. Chem. 5(3), 148-156.
- Han R. P., Zhang J.H., Zou W. H., Shi, J and Liu, H. M., (2005) Equilibrium biosorption isotherm for lead ion on chaff. J. Hazard. Mater, 125, 266–271.
- Ho Y.S., (2006) Second-order kinetic model for the sorption of cadmium onto tree fern: a comparison of linear and non-linear methods. Water Res, 40, 119–125.
- Ho Y.S., Chiu W.T and Wang C.C., (2005) Regression analysis for the sorption isotherms of basic dyes on sugarcane dust. Bioresour. Technol, 96, 1285–1291.
- Senthilkumaar, S and Porkodi, K., (2005) Heterogeneous photocatalytic decomposition of crystal violet in UV-illuminated sol–gel derived nanocrystalline TiO2 suspensions. J. Colloid Interface Sci, 288, 184-189.
- Gupta V. K., Ali I., Suhas, D and Mohan, (2003) Equilibrium uptake and sorption dynamics for the removal of a basic dye (basic red) using low cost adsorbents. J. Colloid Interface Sci, 265, 257–264.
- Kumar K.V., (2006) Comparative analysis of linear and non-linear method of estimating the sorption isotherm parameters for malachite green onto activated carbon. J. Hazard. Mater, 136, 197–202.
- Bhasikuttan, A.C., Sapre, A.V and Shastri, L.V., (1995) Oxidation of crystal violet and malachite green in aqueous solutions - a kinetic spectrophotometric study. J. Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 90(2-3), 177-182.
- Zaghbani, N., Hafiane, A and Dhahbi, M., (2008) Removal of Safranin T from wastewater using micellar enhanced ultrafiltration. Desalination, 222, 348-354.
- Derbyshire, F., Jagtoyen, M., Andrews, R., Rao, A., Martin-Gullon, I and Grulke, E., (2003) Carbon materials in environmental applications. In: Radovic, L.R. Ed., Chemistry and Physics of Carbon. Marcel Dekker, New York, 27, 1–66.
- Ho, Y.S and McKay, G., (2003) Sorption of dyes and Copper ions onto Biosorbents. Process Biochemistry, 38, 1047-1061.
- Jain, A.K., Gupta, V.K., Bhatnagar, A and Suhas., (2003) Utilization of industrial waste products as adsorbents for the removal of dyes. J Hazard. Mater., B-101, 31-42.
- Xing, Y., Liu, D and Zhang, L.P., (2010) Enhanced adsorption of methylene blue by EDTAD-modified sugarcane bagasse and photocatalytic regeneration of the adsorbent. Desalination, 259, 187-191.
- Namasivayam, C., Kanchana, N and Yamuna, R.T., (1993) Waste banana pith as adsorbent for the removal of Rhodamine B from aqueous solution. Waste Manage, 13, 89-95.
- Namasivayam, C and Kadirvelu K., (1994) Coir pith, an agricultural waste by-product for the treatment of dyeing wastewater. Bioresour. Technol, 38, 79-81.
- Ozacar, M and Engil, A., (2005) Adsorption of metal complex dyes from aqueous solutions by pine sawdust. Bioresour. Technol, 96, 791-795.
- Vadivelan, V and Kumar, K.V., (2005) Equilibrium, kinetics, mechanism and process design for the sorption of methylene blue onto rice husk. J. Colloid Interf. Sci, 286, 90-100.
- Tahir, H., Hammed, U., Jahanzeb, Q and Sultan, M., (2008) Removal of fast green dye (C.I. 42053) from an aqueous solution using Azadirachta indica leaf powder as a low cost adsorbent. Afr. J. Biotechnol, 7, 3906- 3911.
- Hossain, M. A. (2006) Study on the process development for removal of Cr (VI) from waste water by sorption on Used Black Tea Leaves. (Doctoral Dissertation) Kanazawa University, Japan.
- Hossain, M.A and Hossain, M.L., (2013) Dynamic modeling of the transport mechanism of Malachite Green to adsorb on used black tea leaves. Int. J. Recent Scientific Res, 4(10), 1575-1579.
- Patil, S., Renukdas, S and patel N., (2012) Kinetic and thermodynamic study of adsorption of Crystal Violet on biosorbents from wastewater. J. Chem. Bio. Phy. Sci, 2(4), 2158-2174.
- Hossain, M.A and Alam, M.S., (2012) Kinetic adsorption of Rhodamine B on used black tea leaves. Iran. J. Environ. Health. Sci. Eng., 9, 2-15.
- Harler, C. R. (1972) Tea Manufacture. New York, Oxford University Press.
- Hossain, M.A., Kumita, M., Michigami Y and Mori, S., (2005) Kinetics of Cr (VI) adsorption on used black tea leaves. J. Chem. Eng. Jpn, 38, 402-406.
- Langmuir, I., (1918) Adsorption of gases on glass, mica and platinum. J. Am Chem Soc., 40, 1361-1403.
- Langmuir, (1916) The constitution and fundamental properties of solids and liquids. J. Am. Chem. Soc, 38 (11), 2221–2295.
- Freundlich, H., (1906) Adsorption in solution. Phys. Chem. Soc. 40, 1361-1368.
- Temkin, M. J. and Pyzhev, V., (1940) Recent modifications to Langmuir isotherms: Kinetics of ammonia synthesis on promoted iron catalysts. Acta Physiochim, URSS, 12, 217-222.
- Dubinin, M.M., Zaverina E.D and Radushkevich L.V., (1947) Sorption and structure of active carbons. I. Adsorption of organic vapors. J. Phy. Chem. 21, 1351–1362.
- Hasany, S.M and Chaudhary, M.H., (1996) Sorption potential of Haro river sand for the removal of antimony from acidic aqueous solution. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 47(4), 467-471.
- Meenakshi, S and Viswanathan, N., (2007) Identification of selective ion exchange resin for fluoride sorption. J. Colloid Interf. Sci, 308, 438-450.
- Weber T.W and Chakkravorti, R.K., (1974) Pore and solid disffusion models for fixed-bed adsorbers. AlChE. J., 20, 228-238.
- Hossain, M.A and Rahman, M.A., (2012) Equilibrium adsorption of Rhodamine -B on used black tea leaves from acidic aqueous solution. Orbital Elec. J. Chem, 4(3), 187-201.
- Aksakal, O and Ucun, H., (2010) Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies of the biosorption of textile dye (Reactive Red 195) onto Pinus sylvestris L. J. Hazard. Mater, 181, 666-672.
- Han, R., Zou, W., Yu, W., Cheng, S., Wang, Y and Shi, J., (2007) Biosorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution by fallen phoenix tree’s leaves. J. Hazard. Mater., 141, 156-162.
- Newcombe, G and Drikas, M., (1997) Adsorption of non-activated carbon: Electrostatic and non-electrostatic effects. Carbon, 35, 1239-50.
- Alberghina, G., Bianchini, R., Fichera, M and Fisichella, S., (2000) Dimerization of Cibacron Blue F3GA and other dyes: Influence of salts and temperature. Dyes and Pigments, 46, 129-137.
- German-Heins, J and Flury, M., (2000) Sorption of Brilliant Blue FCF in soils as affected by pH and ionic strength. Geoderma, 97, 87-101.
- Hossain, M. A and Islam, T.S.A., (1998) Effect of pH of the adsorption of Cr (VI) by used black tea leaves. J. Bangladesh Acad. Sci., 22(1), 91-99.
International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.