Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Monodora myristica (Gaertn), Ocimum gratissimum L. and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe on Post-harvest Anthracnose of Mango Fruit (Mangifera indica L.) Variety Kent in Côte d’Ivoire

Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Monodora myristica (Gaertn), Ocimum gratissimum L. and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe on Post-harvest Anthracnose of Mango Fruit (Mangifera indica L.) Variety Kent in Côte d’Ivoire

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Author(s)

Author(s): KOUAME Koffi Gaston, KOUASSI Koffi II Nazaire, KASSI Fernand Martial, BOLOU Bi Bolou Antoine, TUO Seydou, KANKO Coffi, KONE Daouda

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DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.869 545 921 8-18 Volume 4 - Dec 2015

Abstract

This study was carried out to analyze the antifungal effect of essential oils from Monodora myristica (Gaertn) Dunal, Ocimum gratissimum L. and Zingiber officinalis (Roscoe) against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.), the causal agent of anthracnose infecting mango fruits in Côte d’Ivoire. The inhibitory capacity of five concentrations (100, 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm) of each essential oil were evaluated in vitro on the mycelial growth and spore germination of C. gloeosporioides. The efficacy of O. gratissimum oil on controlling postharvest anthracnose of kent mango fruit was evaluated both before and after inoculation using mycelia discs of C. gloeosporioides. The O. gratissimum oil inhibited completely (100%) the mycelial growth and spore germination of C. gloeosporioides at 1000 ppm in vitro. It is fungistatic at 1000 ppm and fungicide at 2000 ppm. The M. myristica oil showed the lowest inhibitory activity. The mango soaked into O. gratissimum oil concentration after inoculation yielded a highly protective effect against anthracnose disease in mango fruits at 1200 ppm. This treatment, presented the lowest infection rate (20%) and lesion size (0.22 ± 0.04 cm). Moreover, the four doses of O. gratissimum used, did not influence quality parameters of mango fruits. Therefore, essential oil of O. gratissimum could be an alternative to chemicals for control postharvest anthracnose of mangoes.

Keywords

Mango, Anthracnose, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, essential oils, Côte d’Ivoire

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