Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Pattern among Staphylococcus Aureus Strains Isolated from South/Western Nigeria Academic Teaching Hospital and the Environs…Which Way Out?

Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Pattern among Staphylococcus Aureus Strains Isolated from South/Western Nigeria Academic Teaching Hospital and the Environs…Which Way Out?

Loading document ...
Loading page ...


Author(s): J. Omololu-Aso, A.O Oluduro, Omololu-Aso O.O, Arwa Shesha

Download Full PDF Read Complete Article

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.871 458 994 11-23 Volume 5 - Jun 2016


Widespread use of antibiotics has been responsible for the development of numerous problems including the emergence of multi-drug resistance bacteria and increased number of hospital acquired infections with increase health care costs. Eight hundred and fifty samples of different cultures were taken from clinical and non- clinical sources. The clinical sources were the routine specimens of wound swabs, urine, stool, blood and sputum from the Department of Microbiology and Parasitology laboratory of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex (OAUTHC) Ile–Ife. The non-clinical samples were obtained from the nasal cavity of apparently healthy food handlers at restaurants in Obafemi Awolowo University campus and food vendors in Ile–Ife central market. Samples were cultured on mannitol salt agar and incubated at 37oC for 24-48 hours. Staphylococcus aureus were isolated and identified based on mannitol fermentation, Gram’s reaction, positive results for catalase, coagulase and DNAse tests. Susceptibility of the isolates to eight different antibiotics was tested using the disk diffusion technique. Inducible resistance of clindamycin by erythromycin was performed on the isolates. Four hundred and five (405) S. aureus isolates were identified from 770 presumptive staphylococci based on positive results for coagulase and DNase tests. These comprised 56.8% clinical and 43.2% non-clinical isolates. All the urine isolates were resistant to penicillin. All other isolates from both sources were resistant to penicillin at variance higher levels. Among the clinical isolates, resistance to chloramphenicol was the highest (91%), followed by ciprofloxacin (70%) and gentamicin (69%). Among the non-clinical isolates, 62% from the food handlers and cell phones were resistant to cefoxitin. The prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 18%. One hundred and one (101) multiple antibiotic resistance patterns comprising 58 and 43 were observed among clinical and non-clinical isolates, respectively. Majority of the Clinical isolates constituted 4.8%, MRSA. 27.4% MSSA, 45.2% MDR/MRSA, 22.6% MDR/MSSA and Non- Clinical were 10.3% MRSA, 23.4% MSSA, 52.6% MDR/MRSA and MDR/MSSA types. The study concluded that S. aureus was implicated in a wide variety of infections and the prevalence of multiple antibiotic resistance types were high in the study area.


  1. Ako-Nai, A. K., Ogunniyi, A. A., Lamikanra, A. and Torimiro, S. E. A. (1999). The characterization of clinical isolates of S. aureus in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 34: 104-112.
  2. Ajantha, G.S., Kulkarni, R.D., Shetty, J. Shubhada, C. and Jain P. (2008). Phenotypic detection of inducible clindamycin resistance among Staphylococcus aureus isolates by using the lower limit of recommended inter-disk distance. Indian Journal of Pathology Microbiology, 51: 376–378.
  3. Anah, M. U., Udo, J. J., Ochigbo, S. O. and Abia-Bassey, L. N. (2009). Neonatal Septicaemia in Calabar, Nigeria. Tropical Doctor, 38: 126-128.
  4. Adeleke, S. I. and Asani, M. O. (2009). Urinary tract infection in children with nephritic syndrome in Kano, Nigeria, Annals of African Medicine 8: 38-41
  5. Adesida, S., Boelens, H., Babajide, B., Kehinde, A., Snijders, S., Van Leeuwen, W., Coker, A., Verbrugh, H. and Van Belkum, A. (2005). Major epidemic clones of S. aureus in Nigeria. Microbialogy of Drug Resistance, 11: 115-121
  6. Bekibele, C. O., Kehinde, A. O. and Ajayi, B. G. (2009). Upper lid skin bacterial count of surgical eye patients in Ibadan, Nigeria. African Journal of Medical, 37: 273-277.
  7. Cirz, R. T., Chin, J. K., Andes., D. R., Craig, W. A. and Romesberg, F. E. (2005). Inhibition of mutation and combating the evolution of antibiotic resistance. 10: (1371) 0030176. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 39 (5): 755 –756.
  8. Clinical and laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) (2009)). Performance standards for antimicrobial disk Susceptibility Tests. Approved standard. 10th edition.Wayne. Penn.
  9. Drinovie, D., Fuller, E. R., Shore, K. P., Holland, D. J. and Ellis Pegler, R. (2001). Clindamycin treatment of S. aureus expressing inducible clindamycin resistance. Journal of Antimicrobial chemotherapy, 48: 315
  10. Edmond, M. (2000). Glycopeptide research. Staphylococcus aureus. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 115: 6671.
  11. Girou, E., Legrand, P. and Soing-Altrach, S. (2006). Association between hand hygiene compliance and methicillin resistant S. aureus prevalence in a French rehabilitation hospital. Infection Control Hospital Epidemiology, 27 (10): 1128-1130.
  12. Hiramatsu, K., Cui, L. Kuroda, M. and Ito, T. (2007). The emergence and evolution of methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Trends in Microbiology, 9: 486-493.
  13. Li, J. Z., Winston, L. G., Moore, D. H. and Bent, S. (2007). Efficacy of short course antibiotics regimens for community acquired Pneumonia. American Journal of Medicine. 120 (9): 783-790.
  14. Liu, G. Y. (2009). Molecular pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus infections. Pediatric Research, 65: 71R-77R.
  15. Locksley, R. M., Cohen, M. I., Quinn, T. C., Tompkins L, S., Coyle, M. B. and Kirihara, J. M. (1982). Multiple antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Introduction, transmission and evolution of nosocomial infection. Annals of Internal medicine, 9: 317 – 324.
  16. Mathew, A. G., Cissel, R. and Liamthong, S. (2007). Antibiotics resistance in bacteria associated with food/ animals of United States perspective of livestock production. Food pathogens Disease, 4(2): 115-133.
  17. Odetoyin, W. B., Aboderin, A. O., Ikem, R. T., Kolawole, B. A., Oyelese, A. O. (2008). Asymptomatic bacteriuria in patients with diabetes mellitus in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria. East Africa Medical Journal, 85: 18-23.
  18. Okon, K. O., Basset, P., Uba, A., Lin, J., Oyawoye, B., Shittu, A. O. and Blanc, D. S. (2009). Co-occurrence of predominant PVL-positive (ST152) and multidrug-resistant (ST241) S. aureus clones in Nigerian hospitals. Journal of Clinical. Microbiology, 47: 3000-3003.
  19. Onipede, A. O., Onayade, A. A., Elusiyan, J. B., Obiajunwa, P. O., Ogundare, E. O., Olaniran, O. O., Adeyemi, L. A. and Oyelami, O. O. (2009). Invasive bacterial isolates from children with severe infections in a Nigerian hospital. Journal of Infection Development, 2: 429-436.
  20. Pal, N., Sharma, B., Sharma, R. and Vyas, L. (2010). Detection of inducible clindamycin resistance among staphylococcal isolates from different clinical specimens in Western India. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, 56: 182-185.
  21. Rayner, D. (2003). MRSA: an infection control overview. Nursing Standard, 17: 47-53.
  22. Sedighi, I. M. D., Mashouf, R .Y., Pak, N. and Rabiee M. S. (2009). D-Test Method for Detection of Inducible Clindamycin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Iran Journal of Pediatrics, 19 (3): 293-299.
  23. Shittu, A. O. and Lin, J. (2006). Antimicrobial Susceptibility pattern and characterization of clinical isolates of S. aureus in Kwazulu-Natal Province, South Africa. BMC Infectious Diseases, (1): 6-25.
  24. Swobarda, S. M., Earsing, K., Strauss, K., Lane S., Lipsett, P. A. (2004). Electronic monitoring and voice prompts improves hand hygiene and disease nosocomial infections in an intermediate care unit. Care Medicine, 32 (2): 358-363
  25. Synder J. W., McDonald, L.C. and Van Enk, R. (2000). Common bacteria whose susceptibility to antimicrobial is no longer predictable. Lebanese Medical Journal, 48:208-214.
  26. Tacconelli, E., De Angelis, G., Cataldo, M.A., Pozzi, E., Cauda, R. (2008). Does antibiotic exposure increase the risk of methicillin resistant S. aureus isolation. A systematic review and meta analysis. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 60(1): 26-38.
  27. Thomas, S., Cedric. and B., Virginie, B. (1998). S. aureus and methicillin resistant S. aureus.
  28. World Health Organization (2002). The World Health report- reducing risk promoting health life.
  29. Wenzel R. P. and Edmond, M. B. (2000). Managing antibiotic resistance. New England. Journal of Medicine, 343: 1961-1963.

Cite this Article:

International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.

Search Articles

Issue June 2023

Volume 12, June 2023

Table of Contents

World-wide Delivery is FREE

Share this Issue with Friends:

Submit your Paper