Risk Factors and Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) among Apparently Healthy Volunteers in an Urban Setting, North-Central Nigeria

Risk Factors and Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) among Apparently Healthy Volunteers in an Urban Setting, North-Central Nigeria

Loading document ...
Loading page ...


Author(s): J. A. Ndako, F. C. Onwuliri, J. M. Banda, O. O. Alejolowo, V. Fajobi, D. O. Olapade

Download Full PDF Read Complete Article

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.958 307 987 9-15 Volume 5 - Mar 2016


Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious global public health problem and responsible for most common liver infection worldwide. The infection if contracted early in life, may lead to chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study was to determine Hepatitis B Surface Antigenemia (HBsAg) and risk factors of transmission among apparently healthy asymptomatic individual volunteers in Jos metropolis. In order to estimate and further evaluate prevalence rate of HBsAg in our population of study, a well-structured questionnaire was used to obtain the social and demographic information of consenting participants, while ethical approval was sought and obtained. Two hundred (200) volunteer subjects were enrolled for the study, three milliliter (3ml) of venous blood samples were collected aseptically by venipuncture.Sera obtained were assayed for the HBsAg using the HBsAg test strip (Acon Laboratory incorporated USA).Confirmatory tests were performed for Serum HBsAg by using a third generation enzyme linked Immunosorbent assay (HBsAg ELISA)-(Bio-Rad Laboratories, Incorporated California, USA). Overall results showed a prevalence of 45(22.5%) positivity among subjects screened. considering gender 25 (12.5%) were males while 20 (10.0%) were females,(p = 0.020),Age distribution showed that subjects aged 25-29 years recorded a prevalence of 10(12.5%);(p = 0.001), this is relatively high in view of the fact that the study subjects were a apparently healthy population. Clinical risk factors showed that 2.5% of sero-positive subject had a history of blood transfusion(p = 0.480),while4.5% had a record of previous STD infection (p = 0.423).Serological markers among the apparently healthy individuals screened showed; 40 (20.0%), 29 (14.5%), 8 (4.0%), 20 (10.0%) and 38 (19.0%) for HBsAg, Anti HBs, HBeAg, Anti HBe and Anti HBc respectively (P< 0.005).Changes in liver enzymes among subjects that tested positive for the HBV showed that. the apparently healthy individuals recorded an abnormality of 13(28.9%) respectively, [P= 0.0144;( P<0.005)]. This study however confirms the presence of Hepatitis B surface antigenemia among apparently healthy individuals in our study locations. This calls for mass immunization and public health education on the dangers of this infectious agent in the population.


Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), apparently healthy volunteers, Serological Markers


  1. Ado, A., Alhassan, S., Chonoko, U.G and Samaila, A.U.( 2010). Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) among Blood donors attending Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital (ABUTH), Zaria, Nigeria. Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. 3(1):20-22
  2. Akani, C.I., Ojule., A.C., Opurum H.C. and Ejilemele, A.A. (2005). Sero-prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in pregnant women in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal, 12(4):266-270.
  3. Alter, M.J.(2003) Epidemiology and Prevention of Hepatitis B. Journal of Virology,23
  4. (1): 39-46.
  5. Alexander, J., Kowdley, K.V.(2006). Epidemiology of Hepatitis B- Clinical Implications. Research on Gastroenterology, 8:13
  6. Alikor, E.A and Erhabor, O.N. ( 2007) . Seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigenaemia in children in a tertiary health institution in the Niger delta of Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Medicine 16(3): 250-251.
  7. Bhattacharya, P., Chandra, P.K., Data, S.,Banerjee, A., Chakraborty, S., Rajendran, K., Basu,
  8. S.K., Bhattacharya, S.K and Chakravarty, R. (2007). Significant increase in HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis infections among blood donors in West Bengal, Eastern India 2004-2005:Exploratory screening reveals high frequency of occult HBV infection. World Journal of Gastroenterology;13(27):3730-3733.
  9. Bhatti, F.A., Ullah, Z., Salawat, N., Ayub, M. and Ghani, P. (2007). Anti-Hepatitis B core antigen testing, viral markers and Occult hepatitis B virus infection in Pakistani blood donors: implications for transfusion practice. Journal of Transfusion Science, 47(1):74-79.
  10. Bojuwoye, B.J. (1997) . The burden of viral hepatitis in Africa. West African Journal of Medicine, 16(4): 198-203
  11. Busch, M.P. (2000). HIV; HBC and HCV new development related to transfusion safety. Vox Sanguinis, 78:253-256
  12. Budhu, A and Wang, X.W (2006). The role of cytokines in hepatocellular carcinoma. Journal Leukoc. Biol. 80: 1197-1213.
  13. Bwogi, J., Braka, F. and Makumbi, I. (2009).Hepatitis B infection is highly endemic in
  14. Uganda: Findings from a National Serosurvey. African Journal of Health Sciences. 9: 98–108.
  15. CDC. (2008). Surveillance for acute viral hepatitis---United States, 2006. In: CDC Surveillance Summaries, March 21, 2008. MMWR 2008;57 (No. SS-2).
  16. Chang, M.H. (2007). Hepatitis B virus infection foetal, Neonatal Medicine 12: 160-167.
  17. Dawaki, S.S. and Kawo, A.H. (2006). Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in
  18. pregnant women attending an urban maternity hospital in Kano, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Microbiolgy;20: 705-709.
  19. Ejele, O.A. and Ojule, A.C. (2004). The Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) among prospective blood donors and patients in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of
  20. Medicine; 13:336-338 (s)
  21. Egah, D.Z., Banwat, E.B., Audu, E.S. and Iya, D,Mandong, B.M., Anele, A.A.and Gomwalk, N.E.(2007). Hepatitis B surface antigen, Hepatitis C and HIV antibodies in a low-risk blood donor group, Nigeria. East Medit Health Journal 13(4):961-6.
  22. Hall, A.J.( 1994). Control of hepatitis by children vaccination. Reviews in Medical Microbiology. 1;5(2):123–30.
  23. Harry, T.O., Bajani, M.D. and Moses, A.E.(1994). Hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors and pregnant women in Maiduguri, Nigeria. East African Medical Journal, 70:596-597
  24. Jacobson JM, Worner TM, Sacks HS, Lieber CS 1992. Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus infections in a New York City alcoholic population. J Stud Alcohol 53: 76-79.
  25. Kuhns, M.C., Kleinman, S.H., McNamara, A.L. and Busch, M.P. (2004). Lack of correlation between HBsAg and HBV DNA levels in blood donors. Transfusion, 44:1332-1339.
  26. Lawal OA, Bakarey AS, Uche LN, Udeze AO, Okonko IO.( 2009). HBV infection among intending blood donors who incidentally tested positive to HIV antibody in two blood banks in Ibadan, Nigeria. World Applied Science Journal.7(10):1269-1274.
  27. Laskus, T., Lupa, E., Szczutowska, E.and Babiuch, L.(1988). Prevalence of hepatitis B virus markers among polish urban alcoholics. Infection, 16: 354-357.
  28. Lee, C., Gong, Y., Brok,J., Boxall, E. and Gluud, C. (2006) . Effect of hepatitis B immunisation in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 332: 328–336.
  29. Lee, H. (2010). Public health policy for management of hepatitis B infection: historical review of recommendations for immunisation. Public Health Nursing; 27: (2) 148-157.
  30. Lok, A. (2005). Hepatitis D Virus Infection and Liver Transplantation. Journal of Virology, 2005, 24:112-114.
  31. Maddrey, W.C. (2000). Hepatitis B: an important public health issue. Journal of Medical Virology. 61:362-366
  32. Mast, E.E., Margolis, H.S., Fiore, A.E., Brink, E.W., Goldstein, S.T., Wang, S.A., Moyer, L.A, Bell, B.P. and Alter, M.J. (2005). A comprehensive immunization strategy to eliminate transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in the United States. MMWR;54:1–32.
  33. Mahoney, F.J.(1999). Update on diagnosis, management, and prevention of hepatitis B virus infection. Clinical Microbiology. Review,12:351-66.
  34. Nneka, O. (2007). Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B virus infection in commercial sex workers in
  35. Keffi, Nigeria. B.Sc. Dissertation, Nasarawa State University pp. 1-18.
  36. Odusanya, O.O., Alufohai, F.E., Meurice, F.P.,Wellens, R., Weil, J and Ahonkhai, V.I. (2005). Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen in vaccinated children and controls in rural Nigeria. International J. of Infect. Dis., 9(3): 139-143.
  37. Oladele, O.O, Adesina, T.B., Omolola, Z.T, and Sunday, T.S. ( 2013). Prevalence of HBsAg and HIVamong blood donors in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. International Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences.Vol.1(3):68-71.
  38. Otegbayo, J.A., Fasola, F.A. and Abja, A.(2003). Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigens,
  39. risk factors for viral acquisition and serum transaminase among blood donors in Ibadan, Nigeria. Tropical Gastroenterology, 24(4); 196-197.
  40. Olubuyide, I.O., Ola,S.O., Aliyu, B., Dosumu, O.O. and Arotiba, J.T. (1997). Hepatitis B and C in Doctors in Nigeria. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Medicine. 90:417-422.
  41. Pan, C.Q. and Zhang, J.X. (2005). Natural history and clinical consequences of hepatitis B virus infection. International Journal of Medical Science, 2:36-40.
  42. Sharma, R., Sharma, C.L and Khajuria, R. (2004). The knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HBV infection of married women in the reproductive Age group living in cantonment Area Sunjawan Jammu. Journal of Med. Educ. Res. 6:127–130.
  43. Saravanan, S., Velu, V. and Kumarasamy, N.(2007). Co infection of Hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus in HIV-infected patients in south India Academic Press Ltd., 569-574.
  44. Seeger, C. and Mason, W.S.(2000).Hepatitis B virus biology. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 64:51-68.
  45. Sirisena, N.D., Njoku, M.O., Idoko, J.A., Isamade, E.,Barau, C., Jelpe, D., Zamani, A. and Otawa, S. (2002).Carriage rate of HBsAg in an urban community in Jos, Plateau State Nigeria. Journal of Nig.Postgrad. Med. ; 9: 7–10.
  46. Tsai, N. C., P. S. Holck, L. L. Wong, and A. A. Ricalde. (2008). Seroepidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection: Analysis of mass screening in Hawaii. Hepatology International 2(4):478-485.
  47. Ugwuja, E. and Ugwu N. (2010). Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Liver
  48. Function Tests among Adolescents in Abakaliki, South Eastern Nigeria. The Internet Journal of Tropical Medicine, 6(2).
  49. Umolu, P.I., Okoror, L.E. and Orhue, P. (2005). Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Seropositivity and hepatitis B surface antigenemia (HBsAg) among blood donors in Benin City, Edo state,Nigeria. African Health Sciences; 5(1): 55–58.
  50. Uneke, C.J., Ogbu,P.U.I, Anyanwu,G.I, Njoku, M.O. and Idoko, J.H.( 2005). Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen among blood donors and HIV-infected patients in Jos, Nigeria. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Rio de Janerio. 100(1):13-16.
  51. Weinbaum, C.M., Mast, E.E. and Ward, J.W. (2009). Recommendations for identification and public health management of persons with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatology.49:35-44.
  52. World Health Organization (WHO). (1998).Hepatitis B Immunization, WHO Position-
  53. Weekly Epidemiological Record, 73:329-330.
  54. Xuan,S.Y.,Xin,Y.N.,Chen,N.,Shi,G.Y.,Guan,H.S.,Li,Y. (2007). Significance of HBsAg and HCV expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma and pericarcinomatous tissues. World journal of Gastrenology 28:1870-1874.
  55. Yang, J.D, Kim, W.R., Coelho, R., Mettler,T. and J.T. (2011) . Cirrhosis is present in most patients with hepatitis B and hepatocellular carcinoma. Clinical Gastroenterol Hepatology 9: 64-70.
  56. Yang, H.I., Lu,S.N. and Liaw, Y.F.(2002) Taiwan Community-Based Cancer Screening Project Group. Hepatitis B e antigen and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. N Engl J Med.;347:168–174.
  57. Zheng, Y., Lu, Y., Ye, Q., Xia, Y., Zhou, Y., Yao, Q. and Wei S.(2011). Should chronic hepatitis B mothers’ breastfeed? A meta-analysis. BMC Public Health.11:502.

Cite this Article:

International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.

Search Articles

Issue June 2023

Volume 12, June 2023

Table of Contents

World-wide Delivery is FREE

Share this Issue with Friends:

Submit your Paper