Author(s): JIANG Yi-chen, SUN Yong-ye, GONG Wei-lei, LI Yuan-yuan, MA Ai-guo
Objective: To detect the mechanism of excess iron intake on growth and intestinal mucosa in rats. Methods: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Low Iron Group, Normal Iron Group, Medium Iron Group and High Iron Group upon daily iron intake of 7mg/kg, 16.8mg/kg, 35mg/kg, 70mg/kg respectively via fodder for eight weeks. The general condition, body weight and food intake were documented simultaneously. Serum level of Ferritin, IL-6 and IL-10 were detected using ELISA. The observation of morphology of intestine was also included concurrently. Results: The weight obtained was significantly lower in the High Iron Group compared with the other three groups while the average weight of the rats in the High Iron Group was lower than the Normal Iron Group. Meanwhile, the average amount food uptake of the High Iron Group had slightly decreased in the eighth week. In addition, the level of IL-6 in small intestine of the High Iron Group is higher than that of the Normal Iron Group (P<0.05), while the level of IL-10 in small intestine of the High Iron Group is lower than that of the Normal Iron Group (P<0.05). The histopathology results showed that normal morphology was found in Low Iron Group and Normal Iron Group, but the mucosa showed a slight injury in the Medium Iron Group with apical microvilli slightly off. Irregular shape of microvilli and necrosis were found in some epithelial cells of intestinal mucosa in the High Iron Group. Conclusion: Excessive dietary iron intake plays a negative effect on the normal growth and development, and resulted in intestinal inflammatory injury in rats.
Rat, Iron Overload, Growth and Development, Small Intestinal Mucosa
- Galaris D, Pantopoulos K. Oxidative stress and iron homeostasis: mechanistic and health aspects.[J]. Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, 2008, 45(1):1-23.
- Zhu Hang, He Qiushi, Lu Yang, et al. Experimental study on the protective effect of selenium enriched yeast on liver injury induced by iron overload [J]. Chinese Journal of Tropical Medicine, 2007, (8): 732-734.
- Tsuchiya H, Ebata Y, Sakabe T, et al. High-fat, high-fructose diet induces hepatic iron overload via a hepcidin-independent mechanism prior to the onset of liver steatosis and insulin resistance in mice.[J]. Metabolism Clinical & Experimental, 2013, 62(1):62-9.
- Fargion S, Mattioli M, Fracanzani A L, et al. Iron and liver diseases.[J]. Canadian journal of gastroenterology = Journal canadien de gastroenterologie, 2000, 14 Suppl D(14 Suppl D):89D-92D.
- Barbara AB, Robert MR. Present Knowledge in Nutrition[M]. Eighth Edition . Washington DC: International Life Institute Press, 2001. 311-328.
- WCRF. Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. Washington DC: WCRF and American Institute for Cancer Research; 2007. p. 1–537.
- WCRF. WCRF/AICR Systematic Literature Review Continuous Update Project Report: The associations between food, nutrition and physical activity and the risk of colorectal cancer. Washington DC: WCRF and American Institute for Cancer Research; 2010. p. 1–855.
- Bastide N M, Chenni F, Audebert M, et al. A central role for heme iron in colon carcinogenesis associated with red meat intake.[J]. Cancer Research, 2015, 75(5):870-9.
- Lobo A R, Cocato M L, De Sá L R, et al. Dietary iron overload: short- and long-term effects on cecal morphometry in growing rats.[J]. Journal of Nutritional Science & Vitaminology, 2014, 60(6):397-402.
- He Limin, Sun Yongye, Cai Jing, et al. Effects of iron overload on DNA damage in lymphocytes of rats [J]. mutation of carcinogenesis, 2015, 27 (1): 59-63.
- Jiang Ying, Ma Aiguo, Sun Yongye, et al. Study on maternal health, experimental study of [J]. overdose on rat liver injury effect of iron 2015, 44 (3): 402-406.
- Liu Xilan, Chen Ling. Trace elements and embryo growth and development [J]. trace element and health research, 2003, 20 (): 52-54.
- Rimbach G, Markant A, Most E, et al. Liver and Colon Oxidant Status in Growing Rats Fed Increasing Levels of Dietary Iron[J]. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine & Biology, 1997, 11(2):99-104.
- Papadopoulou E, Stratakis N, Roumeliotaki T, et al. The effect of high doses of folic acid and iron supplementation in early-to-mid pregnancy on prematurity and fetal growth retardation: the mother-child cohort study in Crete, Greece (Rhea study).[J]. European Journal of Nutrition, 2013, 52(1):327-36.
- Lund E K, Wharf S G, Fairweathertait S J, et al. Increases in the concentrations of available iron in response to dietary iron supplementation are associated with changes in crypt cell proliferation in rat large intestine.[J]. Journal of Nutrition, 1998, 128(2):175-9.
- Lund E K, Fairweather-Tait S J, Wharf S G, et al. Chronic exposure to high levels of dietary iron fortification increases lipid peroxidation in the mucosa of the rat large intestine.[J]. Journal of Nutrition, 2001, 131(11):2928-31.
- Uritski R, Barshack I I, Ghebremeskel K, et al. Dietary iron affects inflammatory status in a rat model of colitis.[J]. Journal of Nutrition, 2004, 134(9):2251-2255.
- Zimmermann M B, Chassard C, Rohner F, et al. The effects of iron fortification on the gut microbiota in African children: a randomized controlled trial in Cote d'Ivoire.[J]. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2010, 92(6):1406-15.
- Ijssennagger N, Derrien M, Doorn G M V, et al. Dietary Heme Alters Microbiota and Mucosa of Mouse Colon without Functional Changes in Host-Microbe Cross-Talk[J]. Plos One, 2012, 7(12):e49868.
- Li Y, Hansen S L, Borst L B, et al. Dietary Iron Deficiency and Oversupplementation Increase Intestinal Permeability, Ion Transport, and Inflammation in Pigs.[J]. Journal of Nutrition, 2016, 146(8).
- Banan A, Choudhary S, Zhang Y, et al. Oxidant-induced intestinal barrier disruption and its prevention by growth factors in a human colonic cell line: role of the microtubule cytoskeleton.[J]. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 2000, 28(5):727-738.
- Banan A. Carbonylation and disassembly of the F-actin cytoskeleton in oxidant induced barrier dysfunction and its prevention by epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor alpha in a human colonic cell line.[J]. Gut, 2000, 46(6):830-7.
- Kortman G A, Boleij A, Swinkels D W, et al. Iron availability increases the pathogenic potential of Salmonella typhimurium and other enteric pathogens at the intestinal epithelial interface.[J]. Plos One, 2012, 7(1):e29968.
International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.