Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi and Paratyphi Responsible of Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fevers Transmitted by Environment and Food

Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi and Paratyphi Responsible of Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fevers Transmitted by Environment and Food

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Author(s)

Author(s): Somda Namwin Siourimè, Bonkoungou Ouindgueta Juste Isidore, Traoré Yves, Savadogo Aly

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DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1305 158 611 87-96 Volume 6 - May 2017

Abstract

This study deals with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Paratyphi responsible of typhoid and paratyphoid fevers transmitted by environment and foods. Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers are systemic diseases caused by the bacteria Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi, respectively. Humans are the only reservoir for Salmonella Typhi (which is the most serious), whereas Salmonella Paratyphi also has animal reservoirs. Humans can carry the bacteria in the gut for very long times (chronic carriers), and transmit the bacteria to other persons (either directly or via food or water contamination). Although S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi are strictly adapted to humans, both serovars can remain viable in the environment, surviving in water and underlying sediment for days to weeks. Foods are susceptible to be contaminated and transport Salmonella include vegetable products such as lettuce. In developping countries, typhoid and paratyphoide fever were generally treat with using antimicrobial such as quinolones, and cephalosporin. Patients were not responding to the most available antibiotics of choice. Some patients, because of ignorance and lack of financial means, prefer street drugs, so they practice self-medication. Those practices can enhance the antibiotics resistances genes. As the ultimate solution for the prevention and eradication of paratyphoid fever, it is essential to improve sanitation such as the provision of safe water and food as well as enhanced public health awareness.

Keywords

Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi, typhoid and paratyphoid fever, epidemiology, antibiotic resistance, environment, food

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