Author(s): Isaac Amechi Onyimba, Janet Uchechukwu Itelima, Mojisola Olubunmi Job, Abigail Ify Ogbonna, Comfort Ochoule Ode
Download Full PDF
Read Complete Article
Volume 6 - Sep 2017
In view of the need for better hygiene in kununn-zaki production, this study investigated the use of selected starter cultures for production of kununn-zaki using sorghum grains. Lactobacillus fermentum (L1), Lactobacillus plantarum (L2), and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L3) were isolated from naturally fermented kununn-zaki and then used in four different combinations as starter cultures for the production of kununn-zaki. The starter cultures which included L1 + L2, L1 + L3, L2 + L3, and L1 + L2 + L3 were used to produce four different kununn-zaki (K1, K2, K3, and K4) respectively. A control (kununn-zaki produced by spontaneous fermentation) was also prepared. Titratable acidity (TA) and pH were determined every 2 hours during a 6-hour fermentation period. Crude protein contents of the kununn-zaki products were determined. The organoleptic qualities of the produced kununn-zaki were judged by a 7-man panel based on appearance, aroma, taste, and overall acceptability using a 5-point hedonic scale. As fermentation proceeded, there were decreases in pH values, with accompanying increases in TA for all the kununn-zaki samples. K1 and K3 had the highest score (4.57± 0.53) in overall acceptability, and thus the most preferred among the kununn-zaki products. K3 was found to have the highest crude protein content (1.45%) followed by K1 (1.38%.). It is concluded that carefully selected starter cultures could be used to produce kununn-zaki with improved protein content and acceptable organoleptic qualities under more hygienic conditions.
Fermentation, Lactic Acid Bacteria, Kununn-Zaki, Cereal Beverage, Sensory Quality
- Agarry, O. O., Nkama, I., and Akoma, O. (2010). Production of kunun-zaki (a Nigerian fermented cereal beverage) using starter culture. International Research Journal of Microbiology, 1(2), 18-25.
- Akoma, O., Daniel, A. A., Ajewole, A. E., and Nwodo, P. G. (2014). Quality Characteristics of Kunun Zaki (A Nigerian Fermented Cereal Beverage) Sold Within Bida Metropolis. Global Advanced Research Journal of Agricultural Science, 3(9), 298- 303.
- Amoa-Awua, W. K., Sampson, E., and Tano-Debrah, K. (2006). Growth of yeast, lactic acid and acetic acid bacteria in palm wine during tapping and fermentation from felled oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) in Ghana. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 102, 599-606.
- Annan, N. T., Poll, L., Sefa-Dedeh, S., Plahar, W. A., and Jakobsen, M. (2003). Volatile compounds produced by Lactobacillus fermentum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida krusei in single starter culture fermentation. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 94(3), 462-474.
- Anderson, R. (1988). Lactic acid bacteria in the production of food. Food LaboratoryNewsletter, 14, 17-21.
- AOAC (1990). Official methods of analysis (15th ed.). Washington D.C.: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
- AOAC (2006). Official methods of analysis (18th ed.). Washington D.C.: Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
- Efiuvwevwere, B. J. O. and Akoma, O. (1995). The microbiology of kunun-zaki, a cereal beverage from Northern Nigeria during the fermentation (production) process. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 11, 491-493.
- Egbere, O. J., 2 Idoko, B. O., Danladi, M. M. A., Yakubu, D., and Soom, S. (2017). Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation in the production of Kunun zaki (A Nigerian nonalcoholic beverage) by selected Lactic acid bacteria. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 2(1), 72-76.
- Elmahmood, A. M. and Doughari, J. H. (2007). Microbial quality assessment of kunun-zaki beverage sold in Girei town of Adamawa State, Nigeria. African Journal of Food Science, 1, 11-15.
- Gaffa, T. and Ayo, J. A. (2002). Innovations in the traditional kunun-zaki production process. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 1(5), 202-205.
- (Halm, M., Osei-Yaw, A., Hayford, A., Kpodo, K. K. A., and Amoa-Awua, W. K. A. (1996). Experiences with the use of a starter culture in the fermentation of maize for kenkey production in Ghana. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 12(5), 531-536.
- Hounhouigan, D. J., Nout, M. J. R., Nago, C. M., Houben, J. H., and Rombouts, F. M. (1999). Use of starter cultures of lactobacilli and yeast in the fermentation of mawe, an African maize product. Tropical Science, 39(4), 220-226.
- Kimaryo, V. M., Massawe, G. A., Olasupo, N. A., and Holzapfel, W. H. (2000). The use of starter culture in the fermentation of cassava for the production of kivunde, a traditional Tanzanian food product. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 56, 179-190.
- Larmond, E. (1977). Laboratory methods for evaluation of food. Ottawa: Department of Agriculture.
- Mithun, S., Dipak, V., Sarang, S. (2015). Isolation and Identification of lactobacilli from raw milk samples obtained from Aarey Milk Colony. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 5(4), 1-5.
- Mugula, J. K., and Sorhaug, T. (2003). Use of starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the preparation of, a Tanzanian fermented food. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 83.
- Nair, P. S., and Surendran, P. K. (2005). Biochemical characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from fish and prawn. Journal of Culture Collections, 4, 48-52.
Cite this Article:
International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.