Six samples of honey from two states in Nigeria, Cross River and Oyo were investigated. (Igoli in Ogoja, farm bred and wild species from Obudu, Agoi Ibami, Eruwa and Iseyin) were analysed for their sugar components, Hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), free acidity and electrical conductivity. Honey is composed of various sugars but the dominant sugars are two monosaccharide, fructose and glucose which are also reducing sugars. Honey is used for various purposes including medicinal, cosmetics, in the food industry, bakery and confectionary. The sugar contents were analysed using the HPLC with refractive Index (RI). The European Commission procedures were used to analyse HMF and electrical conductivity, while free acidity was analysed by AOAC methods (1999). The results of the analysis showed that although fructose and glucose were predominant in all the samples, only two samples, Igoli in Ogoja and Obudu farm bred met the Codex Alimentarius standard for fructose and glucose at 60g/100g. Fructose values (g/100g) reported for Igoli in Ogoja, Obudu farm, Agoi Ibami, Obudu wild, Eruwa and Iseyin were 34.92 ± 0.12, 36.45 ± 0.14, 30.50 ± 0.06, 28.45 ± 0.09, 33.40 ± 0.17, and 30.45 ± 0.09 respectively. Sucrose in all the honey samples met the Codex Alimentarius standard of < 5g/100g limit. Fructose/glucose ratio for all the samples was greater than 1 which indicated slower crystallization of all the honey samples. Values of free acidity ranged from 11.57 ± 0.07 to 18.60 ± 0.10meq/kg, which were lower than the 50meq/kg limit set by the Council of the European Union showing the absence of undesirable fermentation. HMF concentration in the samples all met the International optimum value of 40mg/kg reported by European Union and 80mg/kg for honey from the tropics. Electrical conductivity of the samples varied from 0.41 ± 0.01 to 0.63 ± 0.00mS/cm. The results showed that the honey samples sold locally in Nigeria meet the required international standards for honey.
Sugars, Hydroxymethyl Furfural, Free Acidity, Electrical Conductivity
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