Download Full PDF
Read Complete Article
Volume 6 - Oct 2017
The global demand for phytopharmaceutical products is on the upward trend and will probably continue to rise in the next few decades. This demand is fuelled by the growing acceptability, availability and affordability and the growing scientific evidence of efficacy. However, while great progress is being made in research and development of these products in the developed world, very little progress has been made in research, development and documentation of possible leads/products in developing countries of Africa. The challenges range from dearth of capacity to develop implement appropriate research protocols and tools. This article is an attempt toward providing a guide to the chemical and biologiocal screening approaches in the research and development of phytopharmaceuticals. Approaches towards achieving quality products that meets basic regulatory requirements are discussed.
Chemical, Biological, Screening approaches, phytopharmaceuticals, Herbal products, Medicinal plants, Research and development, Quality parameters
- Addae-Mensah I, Fakorede F, Holtel A, Nwaka S (2011).Traditional medicines as a mechanism for driving research innovation in Africa. Malaria Journal, 2011, 10(Suppl 1):S9. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-10-S1-S9
- African Herbal Pharmacopoeia (2010). African Herbal Pharmacopoeia, Association for African Medicinal Plants Standards. Brendler T, Eloff JN, Gurib-Fakim A, Phillips LD (Eds), Graphic Press Ltd, Rue des Oursins, Baie du Tombeau, Mauritius. 289p.
- African Pharmacopoeia. General methods for Analysis. African Pharmacopoeia (2nd Eds), OAU/STRC Publications Division PMB 2359, Lagos, Nigeria, 1986. p.137-150.
- AU (2003). The Maputo Declaration on Malaria, HIV/AIDS, TB and ORID (Assembly/AU/Decl.6 (II)) made at the Assembly of the African Union, Second Ordinary Session, held in Maputo, Mozambique from 10 to 12 July 2003 Maputo, Mozambique (Assembly/AU/ Decl. 4 – 11).
- Bandaranayake WM (2006). Quality Control, Screening, Toxicity, and Regulationof Herbal Drugs. In: Modern Phytomedicine. Turning Medicinal Plants into Drugs, I. Ahmad, F. Aqil, and M. Owais (Eds.), WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.2006, pp. 25-57.
- Boopathy NS, Kathiresan K (2010). “Anticancer drugs from marine flora: an overview,” Journal of Oncology, vol. 2010, ArticleID214186, 18pages, 2010.
- Cameron SI, Smith RF, Kierstead KE (2005). Linking medicinal/nutraceutical products research with commercialization. Pharmacetical Biology, 2005, 43(5): 425–433.
- Deng ZL (2007). “Application of new techniques in the innovative research of Chinese herbal medicine”. Chinese Pharmaceutical, 2007, 16: 58–589.
- Dweck AC (1996). Botanicals—Research of actives. Cosmet. Toilet. 1996, 111: 45–57.
- Ehrman TM, Barlow DJ, Hylands PJ (2007). Phytochemical databases of chinese herbal constituents and bioactive plant compounds with known target specificities. J ChemInf Model. 2007;47:254–63.
- Elujoba AA, Odeleye OM, Ogunyemi CM (2005), Traditional Medicine Development for Medical and Dental Primary Health Care Delivery System in Africa. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 2 (1): 46-61. Available from: [Accessed on 1 Sept 2017].
- Farnsworth NR. Screening plants for new medicines. Available from: http://www.ciesin.org/docs/002-256c/002-256c.html. [Accesses 23.6.2017].
- Foungbe S; Kouassi G; Kablan JB; Marcy R. Study of Costuslucanusianus: plant juice, fraction combinations and pharmacologic estimation of natural product total activity. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1991, 33: 221–226. (doi:10.1016/0378-8741(91)90080-W)
- Gurib-Fakim (2006). Medicinal Plants: Traditions of Yesterday and Drugs of Tomorrow. Molecular Aspects of Medicine 27(1):1–93.
- Gurib-Fakim A (2017). Capitalize on African biodiversity - Under-exploited plants offer untold medical and economic promise that should be pursued. Nature 2017,548: 7.
- Hostettmann K; Marston A; Ndjoko K;Wolfender JL. The Potential of African Plants as a Source of drugs. Curr Org Chem,2000, 4: 973–1010. doi: 10.2174/1385272003375923
- Im AR, Kim YH, Uddin MR, Lee HW, Chae SW, Kim YH, Jung WS, Kang BJ, Mun CS, Lee MY (2012). Scutellaria baicalensis extracts and flavonoids protect rat L6 cells from antimycin A induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol.2012, ArticleID517965, 8pages, 2012.
- Kamboj A (2012). Analytical Evaluation of Herbal Drugs. In: Drug Discovery Research in Pharmacognosy.2012. Available from: [Accessed on 14 July 2017]
- Katiyar C, Gupta A, Kanjilal S, Katiyar S (2012).Drug discovery from plant sources: An integrated approach. Ayu. 2012 Jan-Mar; 33(1): 10–19. doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.100295PMCID.
- Kornsteiner M, Wagner KH, Elmadfa I (2006). Tocopherols and total phenolics in 10 different nut types. Food Chem. 2006, 98: 381–387.
- Krause J, Tobin G (2013). Discovery, Development, and Regulation of Natural Products. Intech. http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/56424.
- Leonarduzzi G, Testa G, Sottero B, Gamba P, Poli G (2010). “Design and development of nanovehicle-based delivery systems for preventive or therapeutic supplementation with flavonoids,”Current Medicinal Chemistry, 2010, 17(1): 74– 95.
- Newman DJ, Cragg GM (2007). “Natural products as sources of new drugs over the last 25 years,” Journal of Natural Products, 2007, 70(3): 461–477.
- Newman DJ, Cragg GM (2012). Natural Products Sources of New Drugs over the 30 Years from 1981 to 2010. J. Nat. Prod. 2012, 75, 311-335. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/np200906s
- Nobel Media. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2015".Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2014.Web. 28 Apr 2016. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2015/
- Nwaka S, Ochem A, Besson D, Ramirez B, Fakorede F, Botros S, Inyang U, Mgone C, Adae-Mensah I, Konde V, Nyasse B, Okole B, Guantai A, Loots G, Atadja P, Ndumbe P, Sanou I, Olesen O, Ridley R, Ilunga T (2012). Analysis of pan-African Centres of excellence inhealth innovation highlights opportunities andchallenges for local innovation and financing inthe continent. BMC International Health and Human Rights 2012, 12:11. 15 pages. Available from: [Accessed om 14 July 2017]
- Nwaka S; Hudson A (2006). Innovative lead discovery strategies for tropical diseases. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006, 5: 941-55. 10.1038/nrd2144.
- Ramberg JE, Nelson ED, Sinnott RA (2010). “Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature. Nutrition Journal, vol.9, article54, 2010.
- Schuster BG (2001). A new integrated program for natural product development and the value of an ethnomedical approach. J. Altern. Complem. Med. 2001, 7: S61–S72. (doi:10. 1089/107555301753393823)
- Sheng JP, Chen HR, Shen L (2009). “Comparative study on selenium and amino acids content in leaves of planted and wild scutellaria baicalensis,” Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis, 2009, 29(1): 211–213
- Turner DM (1996). Natural product source material use in the pharmacological industry: the Glaxo experience.
- UN (2001). African Summit on HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and related infectious diseases, Abuja, Nigeria, 24-27 April, 2001.Available from: [Accessed on 1 Sept 2017].
- Wang M, Hao X, Chen K (2007). Biological screening of natural products and drug innovation in China. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B (2007) 362, 1093–1105 doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2036.
- WHO (2010). African Traditional Medicine Day, 31 August. Health Monitor, WHO-AFRO, Special issue, 2010. Available from: [Accessed on 14 July 2017].
- WHO (2017). Traditional Medicine Strategy 2014-2023. Available from: [Accessed on 1Sept 2017].
- Xu Z, Chen X, Zhong Z, Chen L, WangY (2011). “Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides: immunomodulation and potential anti-tumor activities, ”The American Journal of Chinese Medicine,2011, 39(1):15–27,.
- Yirga G, Teferi M, Kasaye M (2011).Survey of medicinal plants used to treat human ailments in Hawzen district, Northern Ethiopia,” International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, 2011, 3(13) pp.709–714.
- Zhang X (1998). Regulatory Situation of Herbal Medicines. A worldwide Review. WHO/TRM/98.1.1998, pp. 1-4. Available from: http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/pdf/whozip57e/whozip57e.pdf[Accessed 25.6.2017].
Cite this Article:
International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.