Most Acacia species have a hard seed coat and therefore have become more resistant to unsuitable environmental conditions. The study aimed to assess the effects of different treatments on seed germination collected from five species of Acacia in Jibala, Al-Dawadmy, a city located in the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia. The results showed that the highest germination percentage was 90.8%, with scarification treatment, while the lowest germination percentage was 30.9%, utilising a boiling treatment lasting seven minutes. Among the studied species, the seeds of A. ehrenbergiana produced the highest percentage of germination and the lowest germination time average among the studied species, while the lowest germination percentage and the highest germination time averages were found in A. nubica. Concluding, this study proved that scarification was the most effective technique for increasing germination rates, compared to other treatments.
Acacia Species, Scarification, Boiling, Treatment, Socking, Germination
- Alnafia, A. (2004). Plants Geographical Distribution, Saudi Arabia Desert Plants, Saudi Arabia Plants, Saudi Arabia Climate Environment. Riyadh: p. H. Aldafia: ISBN 9960-46-751-1, Edition I 1.
- Aref IM, El-Juhany LI, Hegazy SS (2003). Comparison of the growth and biomass production of six Acacia species in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia after 4 years of irrigated cultivation. J. Arid Environ., 54: 783–792.
- Aref, I.M., H.A.E. Hashim, T.A. Shahrani, and A.I. Mohamed. 2011. Effects of seed pretreatment and seed source on germination of five Acacia spp. African Journal of Biotechnology 10(71): 15901–15910. doi: 10.5897/AJB11.1763
- Baskin C, Baskin J (1998). Seeds, Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination. Academic Press, London.
- Belsky AJ, Amundson RG Duxbury JM, Riha SJ, Ali AR, Mwonga SM (1989). The effects of trees on their physical, chemical and biological environments in a semiarid savanna in Kenya. J. Appl. Ecol., 26:1005–1024.
- Bockarie, A.H.; Duryea, M.L.; West, S.H.; White, S.L. (1993). Pretreatment to overcome seed coat dormancy in Cassia sieberiana. Seed Science and Technology. 21: 383-398.
- Bonner FT, McLemore BF, Barnett JP (1974). Pre-sowing treatment of seed to speed germination, pp. 126-35 in ‘Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States’. Agric. Handbook No. 450. Forest Service, Washington, D.C.
- Bu, H., G., Du, X., Chen, X., Xu, K., Liu. and S., Wen, 2008. Communitywide germination strategies in an alpine meadow on the eastern Qinghai-Tibet plateau: Phylogenetic and life-history correlates. Plant Ecol. 195:87–98.
- Cavanagh, A.K., (1980a). A review of some aspects of the germination of acacias. Proc., R. Soc., Vict. 91(1–2), 161–80.
- Clemens, J., P.G., Jones, and N.H., Gilbert, 1977. Effect of seed treatments on germination in Acacia. Australian J. Bot. 25: 269–76.
- Delwaulle JC (1979). Forest plantations in dry tropical Africa. Revue Bois et Foret des Tropiques, 187: 117–44.
- Demel T (1996). Germination ecology of twelve indigenous and eight exotic multipurpose leguminous species from Ethiopia. For. Ecol. Manage. 80: 209–223.
- Emberger, L. (1971). Considération Complémentaries au sujet des recherches, bioclimatiques et phytogéographiques, écoloqiques in travaur de botanique et décologie, Massonéd: 291-301.
- FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation), 2007. State of the World’s forests. Rome.
- ISTA, (1981). Amendments to International Rules for Seed Testing1976. Intern. Seed Test. Assoc. (Zurich: Switzerland).
- Kassa A, Alia R, Tadesse W, Pando V, Bravo F (2010). Seed germination and viability in two African Acacia species growing under different water stress levels. Afr. J. Plant Sci., 4(9): 353-359.
- Masamba, C., 1994. Presowing seed treatments on four African Acacia species: appropriate technology for use in agroforestry for rural development. Forest Ecology and Management 64, 105–109.
- Msanga, H.P. 1998. Seed Germination of Indigenous Trees in Tanzania. Northern Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service.
- Noad T, Birnie A, (1989). In: Noad T, Birnie A (Eds.). Trees of Kenya, second ed. Nairobi, p. 169.
- Oba G, Nordal I, Stenseth NC, Stave J, Bjora CS, Muthondeki JK, Bii WKA (2001). Growth performance of exotic and indigenous tree species in saline soils in Turkana, Kenya J. Arid Environ. 47: 499–511.
- Okunomo K, Bosah BO (2007). Germination response of Acacia senegal (Linn.) seeds to various presowing trteatments in the nursery. Agric. J. 2(6): 681-684.
- Patane C Gresta F (2006). Germination of Astragalus hamosus and Medicago orbicularis as affected by seed-coat dormancy breaking techniques. J. Arid Environ. 67: 165-173.
- RANAL, M.A. & SANTANA, D.G. 2006. How and why to measure the germination process? Revista Brasileira de Botânica 29:1-11.
- Ren J, Tao L (2004). Effects of different pre-sowing seed treatments on germination of 10 Calligonum species. For. Ecol. Manage. 195: 291- 300.
- Scott SJ, Jones RA,Williams WA(1984). Review of data analysis methods for seed germination. Crop Sci., 24: 1192–1198. Sheridan PM, Karowe DN (2000). Inbreeding, out breeding, and heterosis in the yellow pitcher plant. , Sarracenia flava (Sarraceniaceae) in Virginia. Am. J. Bot., 87: 1628-1633.
- Vibekke V, Heuch I, Vandvik V (2004). Do seed mass and family affect germination and juvenile performance in Knautia arvensis? A study using failure-time methods. Acta. Ecol., 25: 169-178.
- Walters M, Midgley JJ, Somers MJ (2004). Effects of fire and fire intensity on the germination and establishment of Acacia karoo, Acacia nilotica, Acacia luederitzii and Dichrostachys cinerea in the field. BMC. Ecol., 4: 1–13.
- Wilson TB, Witkowski TF (1998). Water requirements for germination and early seedling establishment in four African savanna woody plant species. J. Arid Environ. 38: 541–550.
- Wolf H, Kamondo B (1993) Seed pre-sowing treatment. In: Albrecht J (ed) Tree seed handbook of Kenya. Kenya Forestry Research Institute/ Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeir, Nairobi, Kenya, pp 55–62.
- Zwaan JG (1978). The effects of hot-water treatment and stratification on the germination of Blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon) seed. South Afr. For. J., 105: 2-40.
International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.