Compositional Evaluation of Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia) Fruit and Fruit Pulp of Ebony Tree (Diospyros mespiliformis)

Compositional Evaluation of Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia) Fruit and Fruit Pulp of Ebony Tree (Diospyros mespiliformis)

Loading document ...
Loading page ...


Author(s): M. O. Aremu, Daniel Samson Aboshi, Abutu David, Hemen Agere, Saratu Stephen Audu, Benjamin Zobada Musa

Download Full PDF Read Complete Article

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.1889 39 135 80-89 Volume 8 - Jan 2019


In this study, proximate, mineral, amino acid and anti–nutrient compositions of Mormodica charantia fruit and Diospyros mespiliformis fruit pulp were determined using standard analytical techniques. The respective proximate composition values (g/100 g sample) of M. charantia and D. mespiliformis were: Moisture (3.88 and 4.64), ash (5.22 and 5.5.13), crude protein (20.36 and 4.68), crude fibre (8.41 and 3.58), ether extract (4.39 and 2.00), and carbohydrate by difference (57.56 and 79.68). The calculated fatty acids and metabolizable energy for M. charantia and D. mespiliformis were (3.51 and 1.60 %) and (148.07 and 1508.12 kJ/100 g). The most abundant minerals were Na (612.42 and 425.21 mg/100 g) followed by Na (521.71 and 368.25 mg/100g), respectively. Generally, the two samples were found to be good sources of essential minerals. The levels of Na/K and Ca/Mg ratios were desirable compared with recommended values. The amino acid profiles revealed that both samples contained nutritionally useful quantities of most of the essential amino acids with total essential amino acid (TEAA) (with His) were 34.38 and 22.37 g/100 g for Mormodica charantia and Diospyros mespiliformis, respectively. However, essential amino acid supplementation may be required in dietary formula except Ile and Leu in Mormodica charantia and Met + Cys and Val in Diospyros mespiliformis when comparing the essential amino acids (EAAs) in this report with the recommended FAO/WHO provisional pattern. Met + Cys (TSAA) was the first limiting amino acids (LAA) for the two plant fruits. The study showed that Mormodica charantia and Diospyros mespiliformis can be better sources of some of the essential nutrients with potential health beneficial constituents than some of the members of the family to which they belong. However, some of the anti–nutrient contents may pose nutritional problems in their consumption.


Proximate, Minerals, Amino Acids, Anti-Nutrients, Fruit, Pulp


  1. Apiamu, A., Evuen, F.U., Igunbor, C.O. and Ozemoya, O.M. (2015). In vitro assessment of proximate and phytochemical quantifications of some edible fruits. Nig. J. Pharmac. and Appl. Sci. Res., 4(1): 1 – 9.
  2. Amoo, I.A. and Agunbiade, F.O. (2009). Some nutrient and anti–nutrient components of Pterygota macrocarpa. The Pacific J. Sci. and Techn., 10(2): 949 – 955.
  3. Ajayi, O.B., Akomolafe, S.F. and Adefioye, A. (2014). Proximate analysis, mineral contents, amino acid composition, anti-nutrients and phytochemical screening of Brachystegia eurycoma Harms and Pipper guineense Schum and Thonn. Am. J. Food and Nutr., 2(1): 11 -17.
  4. Ibrahim, H., Aremu, M.O., Onwuka, J.C., Atolaiye, B.O. and Muhammad, J. (2016). Amino acid composition of pulp and seed of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.). FUW Trends in Sci. & Techn. J., 1(1): 74 – 79.
  5. Ogbuagu, M.N. and Agu, B. (2008). Fruit nutritive composition of Maesobotrya barteri, an under-exploited tropical African tree. Fruits, 63(6): 357 – 361.
  6. Aremu, M.O., Oko, O.J., Ibrahim, H., Basu, S.K., Andrew, C. and Ortutu, S.C. (2015). Compositional evaluation of pulp and seed of blood plum (Haematostaphis barteri), a wild tree found in Taraba State, Nigeria. Advances in Life Sci. and Techn., 33: 9 – 17.
  7. Ijeomah, A.U., Ugwuona, F.U. and Ibrahim, Y. (2012). Nutrient composition of three commonly consumed indigenous vegetables of north-central Nigeria. Nig. J. Agric., Food and Env., 8(1): 17 – 21.
  8. Ibrahim, T. A. and Fagbohun, E. D. (2012). Phytochemical and nutritive quality of dried seeds of Bacchhotzia coriacea. Greener Journal of Physical Sciences, 2: 185 – 191.
  9. Effiong, G.S., Ibia, T.O. and Udofia, U.S. (2009). Nutritive and energy values of some wild fruit spices in South -Eastern Nigeria. Electronic J. Env., Agric. and Food Chem., 8(10): 917 – 923.
  10. Onimawo, I.A. (2002). Proximate composition and selected physicochemical properties of the seed, pulp and oil of soursop (Annona muricata). Plant Foods for Human Nutr., 57(2): 165 -171.
  11. Aremu, M.O., Ibrahim, I., Bamidele, T.O., Salau, R.B., Musa, B.Z. and F.J. (2018). Nutrient and anti-nutrient composition of shea (Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaetn) kernel and pulp in the north–east Nigeria. Int. J. Sci., 7(9): 56 – 66.
  12. Adeyeye, E.I. and Aremu, M.O. (2017). Chemical composition of the raw fruit coat, seed and pulp of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis). FUW Trends in Sci. & Tech J., 2(1B): 334 – 341.
  13. Adeyeye, E.I. (2006). Amino acids composition of fermented African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) seeds. J. Appl. and Env. Sci., 2(2): 154 – 158.
  14. [14] Aremu, M.O., Passali, D.B., Ibrahim, H. and Akinyeye, R.O. (2018). Chemical composition of wonderful kola (Bucchiozia coriacea) and bread fruit (Artocarpus altilis) seeds grown in south–south, Nigeria. Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res., 53: 125–132.
  15. Aremu, M.O., Ibrahim, H. and Andrew, C. (2017). Comparative studies on the lipid composition of blood plum (Haematostaphis barteri) pulp and seed oils. Open Biochem. J., 11: 94–104.
  16. Aremu, M.O., Ohale, I.M., Magomya, A.M., Longbap, D.B. and Ushie, O.A. (2014). Compositional evaluation of raw and processed harms (Brachystegia eurycoma). Appl. Food Biotechnol., 2: 9–18.
  17. Nilesh, K.R., Prashant, K.R., Shiwani, P., Geeta, W., Rai, A.K. and Dane, B. 2009. Application of LIBS in detection of antihyperglycemic trace elements in Momordica charantia. Food Biophysics, 4(3): 167-171.
  18. Chivandi, K., Erlwanger, H. and Davidson, B.C. (2008). Lipid content and fatty acid profile of the fruit seeds of Diospyros mespiliformis. International Journal of Integrative Biology, 5: 67-69.
  19. AOAC. (Association of Official Analytical Chemists)(2005). Official Method of Analysis 16th Edn. Washington DC.
  20. FAO/WHO (1991) Protein Quality Evaluation Report of Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultative FAO Food and Nutrient.FAO, Rome, Italy.
  21. Olaofe, O. and Akintayo, E.T. (2000). Prediction of isoelectric points of legume and oil seed proteins from amino acid composition.J. Techno. Sci., 4: 49– 53.
  22. Alsmeyer, R.H., Cunningham, A.E. and Happich, M.L. (1974).Equation to predict (PER) from amino acid analysis. Food Technology, 28: 34 – 38.
  23. Paul, A. and Southgate, D (1978). The Composition of Foods. 4th Edn. Elesevier, North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam.
  24. Aremu, M.O., Atolaiye, B.O., Pennap, G.R.I. and Ashika’a, B. T. (2007). Proximate and amino acid composition of mesquite bean (Prosopis africana) protein concentrate. Indian J. Botanical Research, 3(1), 97 – 102.
  25. Aremu, M.O. and Ibrahim, H. (2014). Mineral content of some plant foods grown in Nigeria: A Review. Food Sciences and Quality Management, 29: 2222– 6088.
  26. Olaofe, O., Adeyemi, F.O. and Adediran (1994). Amino acid and mineral composition and functional properties of some oil seeds. J. Agric Food Chem., 42: 878 – 881.
  27. Olaofe, O., Okiribiti, B.V. and Aremu M.O. (2008). Chemical evaluation of the nutritive value of smooth luffa (luffa cylindrical) seed’s kernel. Electr. J. Env. & Food Chem., 7(10): 3444 – 3452.
  28. Ijarotimi, O.S., Nathaniel, F.T. and Faramade, O.O. (2015). Determination of chemical composition, nutritional quality and anti-diabetic potential of raw, blanched and fermented wonderful kola (Buchholzia coriacea) seed flour.J. Hum Nutr. Food Sci., 3(2): 1060.
  29. Ibrahim, T.A. and Fagbohun, E.D. (2013). Phytochemical and mineral quality of dried seeds of Buchholzia coriacea J. Applied Phytotech and Environ. Sanitation, 2(4): 121– 126.
  30. Voet, D., Voet, J.G. and Pratt, C.W. (2008). Principles of Biochemistry.John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  31. Aremu, M.O., Olaofe, O. and Akintayo, E.T. (2006). Mineral and amino acid composition of two varieties of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean) and kersting’s groundnut (Kerstingella geocapa) flour. Int. J. Chem., 16: 57 – 64.
  32. Nwabueze, T.U. Iwe, M.O. and Akobundu, E.N.T. (2008). Physical characteristics and acceptability of extruded African breadfruit (Treculia africana) -based snacks. J. Food Qua., 31(2):142 – 155.
  33. Ajai, A.I., Ochigbo, S.S., Jacob, J.O., Ndamitso, M.M. and Abubakar, U. (2012). Proximate and mineral compositions of different species of kola nuts. European Journal of Applied Engineering and Scientific Research, 1 (3): 2278 – 0041.
  34. Fagbemi, T.N. and Oshodi, A.A. (1991). Chemical composition and functional properties of full fat fluted seed flour. Nigerian Food Journal, 9: 26 – 32.
  35. Jimoh, K.O. and Olatidoye, O.P. (2009). Evaluation of physicochemical and rheological characteristics of soybean fortified yam flour. J. Applied Biosci.,13: 703 – 706.
  36. Ihekoronye, A.I. and Ngoddy, P.O (1985). Integrated food science and technology for the tropics. Macmillan publishers, London.
  37. Adeyeye, E. I., and Aye, P.A. (1998). The effects of sample preparation on the proximate composition and thefunctional properties of the African yam bean flours: Note I. La Rivista Italiana Delle Sostanze Grasse, 75: 253– 261.
  38. Audu, S.S. and Aremu, M.O. (2011). Effect of processing on the chemical composition of red kidney bean (Phaceolus vulgaris L.)Flour. Pak. J. of Nutr. 10(11): 1069 – 1075.
  39. Aremu, M.O., Awala, E.Y., Opaluwa, O.D., Odoh, R. and Bamidele, T.O. (2015). Effect of processing on nutritional composition of processed African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) and mesquite bean (Prosopis africana) seeds. Commun. Appl. Sci., 3: 22 – 41.
  40. Eva, R. (1983). Food, health and you. A book on nutrition with special reference to East Africa. Macmillan Publishers. London, pp. 14– 24.
  41. Suzanne, N. (2003). Food analysis.Third edition. Springer, Purdue University, West Lafayettte, Indiana.
  42. Edet, E.E. (1984). Chemical evaluation of nutritive value of the African Breadfruit: food chemistry africana-FEP Publishers Ltd, Onitsha, p.17.
  43. Ogbuagu, M.N. & Odoemelam, S.A. (2011). The chemical composition of an under-utilized tropical African seed: Artocarpus heterophyllus(jack fruit); Int.J.Chem.Sci. 4:33– 50.
  44. Roberts-Nkrumah, L.B. (2005). Fruit and seed yields in chataigne (Artocarpus camansi) in Trinidad and Tobago. Fruits, 60(6):387 – 393.
  45. Aremu M. O., Olonisakin, A., Bako, D. A. and Madu, P. C. (2006). Compositional studies and physicochemical characteristics of cashew nut (Anarcadium occidentale) flour.Pak. J. of Nutr., 5: 328 – 333.
  46. Aremu, M.O., Salau, R.B. and Suleiman, A.A. (2012). Compositional evaluation of young shoot of deleb palm (Borassus aethiopum, Mart) and white yam (Dioscorea rotundata) flours. Inter. J. Chemical Sci., 5(2); 168 – 174).
  47. FAO/WHO (1973). Energy and protein requirements. In: Nutritional Evaluation of Proteins in Foods. Pellet, P.L. and Young, V.R. (eds.). United Nations University, Tokyo, Japan, pp 1–6.
  48. Fleck, H. (1976). Introduction to Nutrition, 3rd edn., Macmillan New York, pp. 207 – 219.
  49. National Research Council (2008) "Ebony". Lost Crops of Africa: Volume III: Fruits. Lost Crops of Africa 3. National Academies Press.
  50. Aremu, M.O., Bamidele, T.O., Agere, H., Ibrahim, H. and Aremu, S.O. (2015). Proximate composition and amino acid profile of raw and cooked black variety of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus L.) grown in northeast Nigeria. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare,5(7): 213–221.
  51. Aremu, M.O., Ogunlade, I. and Olonisakin, A. (2007). Fatty acid and amino acid composition of cashew nut (Anarcadium occidentale) protein concentrate. Pak. J. Nutr., 6: 419 – 423.
  52. Adeleke, R.O. and Abiodun, O.A. (2010). Nutritional composition of breadnut seed (Artocarpus camansi). African Journal of Agricultural Research, 5(11): 1273-1276.
  53. Bingham, S (1997). Dictionary of nutrition Barrie and Jenkins, London, pp76– 281.
  54. Salunkhe, D.K., Kadam, S.S. and Chavan, J.K. (1985). Post– harvest Biotechnology of Food Legumes. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 132 – 140.
  55. Oshodi, A.A., Olaofe, O. and Hall, G.M. (1993). Amino acid, fatty acid and mineral composition of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). Int. J. Food Sci. Nutri.,43: 187 – 191.
  56. FAO/WHO/UNU (1985).Energy and protein requirements.Technical report series No. 724, Geneva.Ghafoornissa.
  57. Oshodi, A.A., Esuoso, K.O. and Akintayo, E.T. (1998). Proximate and amino acid composition of some underutilized Nigerian legume flour and protein concentrates. La Rivista Italiana Delle Sostanze Grasse, 75: 409–412.
  58. Hickling, D. (2003). Canadian feed peas industry guide. Pulse Canada: Winnipeg Manitoba p. 36 Web.
  59. Oladunjoye, I.O., Ologhobo, A.D. and Olaniyi, C.O. (2010). Nutrient composition, energy value and residual anti-nutritional factors in differently processed breadfruit (Artocarpusaltilis) meal, 9: 1684 – 5315.
  60. Selle, P.H., Ravindran V., Caldwell R.A. and Bryden W.L. (2000): Phytate and phytase: consequences for protein utilisation. Nutr. Res. Rev., 13; 255–278.
  61. Oluwole, S.I., Fagbemi, T.N. and Osundahunsi, O.F. (2015). Determination of chemical composition, nutritional quality and anti-diabetic potential of raw, blanched and fermented wonderful kola. J. Human Nutr. and Food Sci., 23(6): 2333 – 6706.

Cite this Article:

International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.

Search Articles

Issue June 2023

Volume 12, June 2023

Table of Contents

World-wide Delivery is FREE

Share this Issue with Friends:

Submit your Paper