Prognostic Factors and a Nomogram Predicting Overall Survival in Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer

Prognostic Factors and a Nomogram Predicting Overall Survival in Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer

Loading document ...
Loading page ...


Author(s): Mu-an Ling, Bai-yun Gao, Wen-jun Yin, Jian-wen Wei, Song-bo Li, Bin Pan

Download Full PDF Read Complete Article

DOI: 10.18483/ijSci.2559 28 56 24-28 Volume 11 - Mar 2022


Muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is a common type of bladder cancer characterized by a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to establish a nomogram predicting the overall survival (OS) for patients with MIBC. All the 14,393 cased with MIBC were collected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The patients were randomly divided into training group and testing group with a 1:1 ratio. Then, we used The Kaplan-Meier to estimate the over survival OS of these patients. The Univariate and multivariate Cox analysis were performed to identify the independent risk factors related with OS, which were then used to construct a nomogram model in training group. And then the nomogram evaluated by the time-concordance index (C-index) and calibration curves in testing group. The result of Univariate and multivariate Cox analysis revealed that sex, race, N stage, M stage, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors associated with OS. A nomogram was established using these factors with good discrimination and calibration.


Bladder Cancer, Nonagram, Prognosis, Risk Factor


  1. Sung H, Ferlay J, Siegel RL, Laversanne M, Soerjomataram I, Jemal A, Bray F: Global Cancer Statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians 2021, 71(3):209-249.
  2. Miller KD, Nogueira L, Mariotto AB, Rowland JH, Yabroff KR, Alfano CM, Jemal A, Kramer JL, Siegel RL: Cancer treatment and survivorship statistics, 2019. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians 2019, 69(5):363-385.
  3. Smith RA, Andrews KS, Brooks D, Fedewa SA, Manassaram-Baptiste D, Saslow D, Wender RC: Cancer screening in the United States, 2019: A review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians 2019, 69(3):184-210.
  4. Natale C, Leinwand G, Zeineddine F, Silberstein JL, Krane LS: Does muscle invasive bladder cancer following pelvic radiotherapy portend worse prognosis? A seer-based study. Cancer treatment and research communications 2020, 24:100177.
  5. Trenta P, CalabrĂ² F, Cerbone L, Sternberg CN: Chemotherapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer. Current treatment options in oncology 2016, 17(1):6.
  6. Jiang J, Bi Y, Liu XP, Yu D, Yan X, Yao J, Liu T, Li S: To construct a ceRNA regulatory network as prognostic biomarkers for bladder cancer. Journal of cellular and molecular medicine 2020, 24(9):5375-5386.
  7. Patel VG, Oh WK, Galsky MD: Treatment of muscle-invasive and advanced bladder cancer in 2020. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians 2020, 70(5):404-423.
  8. Jin K, Qiu S, Jin D, Zhou X, Zheng X, Li J, Liao X, Yang L, Wei Q: Development of prognostic signature based on immune-related genes in muscle-invasive bladder cancer: bioinformatics analysis of TCGA database. Aging 2021, 13(2):1859-1871.
  9. Song TY, Razvi H, McLean CA, Shepherd R, Grignon DJ, Chin JL: Prognostic value of angiogenesis and vascular invasion in muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The Canadian journal of urology 1996, 3(2):229-234.
  10. Lobo N, Mount C, Omar K, Nair R, Thurairaja R, Khan MS: Landmarks in the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Nature reviews Urology 2017, 14(9):565-574.
  11. Kim IH, Lee HJ: Perioperative Systemic Treatment for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives. International journal of molecular sciences 2021, 22(13).
  12. Yin M, Joshi M, Meijer RP, Glantz M, Holder S, Harvey HA, Kaag M, Fransen van de Putte EE, Horenblas S, Drabick JJ: Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: A Systematic Review and Two-Step Meta-Analysis. The oncologist 2016, 21(6):708-715.
  13. Coen JJ, Zhang P, Saylor PJ, Lee CT, Wu CL, Parker W, Lautenschlaeger T, Zietman AL, Efstathiou JA, Jani AB et al: Bladder Preservation With Twice-a-Day Radiation Plus Fluorouracil/Cisplatin or Once Daily Radiation Plus Gemcitabine for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: NRG/RTOG 0712-A Randomized Phase II Trial. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2019, 37(1):44-51.
  14. Alkassis M, Kourie HR, Sarkis J, Nemr E: Predictive biomarkers in bladder cancer. Biomarkers in medicine 2021, 15(4):241-246.
  15. Zhang Y, Hong YK, Zhuang DW, He XJ, Lin ME: Bladder cancer survival nomogram: Development and validation of a prediction tool, using the SEER and TCGA databases. Medicine 2019, 98(44):e17725.

Cite this Article:

International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.

Search Articles

Issue June 2023

Volume 12, June 2023

Table of Contents

World-wide Delivery is FREE

Share this Issue with Friends:

Submit your Paper