The orientation of the Gothic cathedrals of France can be easily discussed and investigated using the satellite maps. Except a few of them, these buildings have the apse facing the rising sun, according to a practice adopted during the medieval period.
Sunrise amplitude, Solar azimuth, Archaeoastronomy, Gothic cathedrals
- A.C. Sparavigna, The Gardens of Taj Mahal and the Sun, The International Journal of Sciences, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 11, Pages 104-107
- A.C. Sparavigna, Solar Azimuths in the Planning of a Nur Jahan's Charbagh, The International Journal of Sciences, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 12, Pages 8-10
- A.C. Sparavigna, Sunrise and Sunset Azimuths in the Planning of Ancient Chinese Towns, The International Journal of Sciences, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 11, Pages 52-59
- A.C. Sparavigna, A Solar Orientation in the Town-Planning of Xanadu, Archaeogate, 7 June 2013
- A.C. Sparavigna, The Solar Orientation of the Lion Rock Complex in Sri Lanka, The International Journal of Sciences, 2013, Volume 2, Issue 11, Pages 60-62
- Joseph Ratzinger (Pope Benedict XVI), The Spirit of the Liturgy, Ad Solem, 2006, page 64
- The expression â€œad orientemâ€ is often used to mean the priest facing the apse or wall behind the altar, that is, with priest and people looking in the same direction, even if the apse is not oriented westwards, as in the ancient churches of Rome, or eastwards, as in the Gothic cathedrals. The â€œad orientemâ€ worship is opposed to that called â€œversus populumâ€, in which the priest faces the people
- Helen Dietz, The Eschatological Dimension of Church Architecture: The Biblical Roots of Church Orientation, The Sacred Architecture, 2005, Volume 10, Pages 12-14
- The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press 2005, articles "orientation", "westward position", "eastward position"
- Uwe Michael Lang, Turning Towards the Lord: Orientation in Liturgical Prayer, Ignatius Press, 2004
- Erwin Panofsky, editor and translator of Suger's Latin memoirs, is telling that Suger, as a young boy born to lowly parents, was dedicated as an oblate or lay novice to Saint-Denis at the age of nine or ten. Appointed abbot in 1122, Suger's main goal was to honor God and St.Denis through the beautification of his church
- Erwin Panofsky, Abbot Suger on the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis and Its Treasures, Princeton University Press, 1946
- The Abbey Church of Saint-Denis: Birthplace of Gothic Art and Architecture, Athena Review, Vol.4 No.2, http://www.athenapub.com/14suger.htm
- A.C. Sparavigna, The Orientation of Julia Augusta Taurinorum (Torino), http://arxiv.org/abs/1206.6062
- A.C. Sparavigna, The Sunrise Amplitude Equation Applied to an Egyptian Temple, http://arxiv.org/abs/1207.6942
- A.C. Sparavigna, The Orientation of Trayansâ€™ Town of Timgad, http://arxiv.org/abs/1208.0454
- Rite of Dedication of a Church and an Altar 1978, International Committee on English in the Liturgy, Inc. (ICEL), www.liturgyoffice.org.uk/Resources/Rites/RDCA.pdf
- Va. Aa., Wikipedia, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foundation-stone, see also www.liturgialatina.org/pontificale/040.htm
- Benedictine Monks of Buckfast Abbey, The Laying of the Foundation-Stone of a Church, Ignatius Press, January 1927, available at www.catholicculture.org/culture/library/view.cfm?recnum=3661
- Va. Aa., Wikipedia, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apostolic_Constitutions
- Va. Aa., Wikipedia, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denis
- Louis Charpentier, The mysteries of Chartres Cathedral, Veronica's Books, 1966
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