With the long history of scientific forest management based on the Burmese customs of timber extraction, forest policies and its development supported the economy of country and livelihoods of the people until the 21th century. Forests provide not only tangible benefits such as timbers, foods, fodder and shelters for the people and biodiversity but also intangible benefits such as water storage, soil formation, air purification, etc. Using the forests in sustainable manner is particularly contributes well life support system to all living things. Forest policy formulation and legislation in one country tell how people behave on their own scarce resources in order to achieve from their minimum subsistence economy to the goal of national economy as well. Good governance to forest policy and laws always reflect to sound forest management system and that leads to sustainability of forests and well beings of the people in the country. Due to growing population and changing conditions of natural forest ecosystems, every country in the world emphasizes on land use policies and tries to reform to adapt with varying attributes of forests and other political sectors. Security of forest Land tenure system is one of the most important issues and its changes has dynamic effects on people in the country. This paper tries to find out briefly on how forest policy affected to the people and sustainability of forests from 17th century to 21th century in Myanmar. Although countryâ€™s economy mostly depended on the raw timber production throughout the several decades, forest policy, land tenure patterns and its reform are still needed to reflect the real changing conditions of environment.
scientific forest management, customs of timber extractions, forest policy, land tenure reforms
- Asian Development Bank & Myanmar, FACT SHEET, 2012. http://www.adb.org/countries/myanmar/main accessed in 13.Nov.2014.
- Bertram Husch, 1987. Guidelines for forest policy formulation, FAO FORESTRY PAPER 81.
- Bryant, R.L., 1997.The Political Ecology of Forestry in Burma, 1824-1994, (London: C. Hurst & Co.).(hard copy) http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0041977x00019984
- Blaser, J., Sarre, A., Poore, D. & Johnson, S. (2011). Status of Tropical Forest Management 2011. ITTO Technical Series No 38. International Tropical Timber Organization, Yokohama, Japan.
- COUNTRY REPORT - UNION OF MYANMAR. 1997. ASIA-PACIFIC FORESTRY SECTOR OUTLOOK STUDY WORKING PAPER SERIES, Working Paper No: APFSOS/WP/08.Forest Department Ministry of Forestry, Myanmar.
- Forest Department, 2012. Myanmar.
- Forestry in Myanmar. 2010. Ministry of Forestry, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10668-010-9270-8
- GLOBAL FOREST RESOURCES ASSESSMENT. 2010. COUNTRY REPORT, MYANMAR.
- Kyaw Tint, Oliver Springate-Baginski and Mehm Ko Ko Gyi. 2011. Community Forestry in Myanmar; Progress & Potentials. http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/Community+Forestry+in+Myanmar-op75-red.pdf, accessed in 13.Nov.2014.
- Kevin Woods and Kerstin Canby, 2011.BASELINE STUDY 4, MYANMAR: Overview of Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade.Forest Trends for FLEGT Asia Regional Program.
- Myanmar National Environmental Performance Assessment (EPA) REPORT. 2009. NCEA and Project Secretariat UNEP Regional Resource Centre (RRC.AP). http://www.gms-eoc.org/resources/myanmar-epa-report, accessed in 13.Nov.2014.
- Myanmar REDD+ Readiness Roadmap, UNâ€REDD PROGRAMME. 2013. http://www.unredd.net/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=12095&Itemid=53 accessed in 13.Nov.2014.
- National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (Myanmar). 2011. https://www.cbd.int/doc/world/mm/mm-nbsap-01-en.pdf accessed in 13.Nov.2014.
- Myanmar in Transition, â€œOpportunities and Challengesâ€. 2012. Asia Development Bank. ISBN 978-92-9092-812-6 (Print), 978-92-9092-813-3 (PDF) Publication Stock No. RPT124850-2.
- STATUS OF TROPICAL FOREST MANAGEMENT, 2005. INTERNATIONAL TROPICAL TIMBER ORGANIZATION. ITTO Technical Series No 24.ISBN 4 902045 24 9
- The Mirror Newspaper, Myanmar, 12 December, 2014.
- USAID COUNTRY PROFILE, â€œPROPERTY RIGHTS AND RESOURCE GOVERNANCE, Burmaâ€.2013. http://usaidlandtenure.net/burma accessed in 13.Nov.2014.
- http://mizzimaenglish.blogspot.com/2012/07/burmas-environment-law ndergoes.html) access in 4.10.14
Cite this Article:
International Journal of Sciences is Open Access Journal.
This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.
Author(s) retain the copyrights of this article, though, publication rights are with Alkhaer Publications.